Editor: Richard Calderone
Analysis of the phylogenetic relationships and evolution of the cell walls from yeasts and fungi
Article first published online: 15 OCT 2009
© 2009 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved
FEMS Yeast Research
Volume 10, Issue 3, pages 225–243, May 2010
How to Cite
Ruiz-Herrera, J. and Ortiz-Castellanos, L. (2010), Analysis of the phylogenetic relationships and evolution of the cell walls from yeasts and fungi. FEMS Yeast Research, 10: 225–243. doi: 10.1111/j.1567-1364.2009.00589.x
- Issue published online: 12 APR 2010
- Article first published online: 15 OCT 2009
- Received 19 May 2009; revised 8 September 2009; accepted 1 October 2009.Final version published online 5 November 2009.
- cell wall;
The fungal cell wall is a coherent structure formed by microfibrillar polysaccharides and amorphous material made of other polysaccharides and proteins. We performed a phylogenetic analysis of covalent proteins and enzymes that synthesize fungal wall polysaccharides to determine the possible evolution of the wall structure. It is suggested that the components that made up the archaic walls were structural ones, forming a primitive girdle that retained noncovalently bound proteins in the periplasm and allowed cell growth in hypotonic media. The following hypothetical series of events in fungal wall evolution is suggested: (1) Construction of a primitive wall made of chitin and chitosan by division 2 chitin synthases and chitin deacetylases, respectively. (2) Appearance of class II chitin synthase genes (CHS) after separation of Microsporidia. (3) Capture of a gene encoding β-1,3-glucan synthase from an organism related to Plantae or Chromista by horizontal transfer after separation of Chytridiomycota. (4) Appearance or horizontal capture from Chromista of genes involved in β-1,6-glucan synthesis after separation of Zygomycota. (5). Appearance of class III CHS genes. (6) After split of Dikarya phyla, appearance in Ascomycota of class I CHS genes and the capacity to synthesize covalently bound wall proteins.