Bakers' yeast-producing companies grow cells under respiratory conditions, at a very high growth rate. Some desirable properties of bakers' yeast may be altered if fermentation rather than respiration occurs during biomass production. That is why differences in gene expression patterns that take place when industrial bakers' yeasts are grown under fermentative, rather than respiratory conditions, were examined. Macroarray analysis of V1 strain indicated changes in gene expression similar to those already described in laboratory Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains: repression of most genes related to respiration and oxidative metabolism and derepression of genes related to ribosome biogenesis and stress resistance in fermentation. Under respiratory conditions, genes related to the glyoxylate and Krebs cycles, respiration, gluconeogenesis, and energy production are activated. DOG21 strain, a partly catabolite-derepressed mutant derived from V1, displayed gene expression patterns quite similar to those of V1, although lower levels of gene expression and changes in fewer number of genes as compared to V1 were both detected in all cases. However, under fermentative conditions, DOG21 mutant significantly increased the expression of SNF1 -controlled genes and other genes involved in stress resistance, whereas the expression of the HXK2 gene, involved in catabolite repression, was considerably reduced, according to the pleiotropic stress-resistant phenotype of this mutant. These results also seemed to suggest that stress-resistant genes control desirable bakers' yeast qualities.