Vertical distribution of codling moth adults in pheromone-treated and untreated plots

Authors

  • Thomas J. Weissling,

    1. Yakima Agricultural Research Laboratory, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 3706 W. Nob Hill Blvd., Yakima, WA 98902, USA
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  • Alan L. Knight

    1. Yakima Agricultural Research Laboratory, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 3706 W. Nob Hill Blvd., Yakima, WA 98902, USA
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Abstract

The vertical distribution of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) within pheromone-treated and untreated apple and pear orchard canopies was determined using tethered virgin females, unbaited sticky traps, and blacklight observation of released moths. Mating of virgin females tethered at various heights in untreated orchard canopies increased with placement height from 1–4 m. Application of pheromone dispensers for mating disruption at 2 and 4 m above the ground greatly decreased mating. Greatest capture of males and females on unbaited sticky traps occurred at mid- and upper-canopy heights. Total capture of males and females in pheromone-treated plots was not statistically different than in untreated plots. The percentage of mated females captured on sticky traps did not vary with trap height or pheromone treatment. Released moths marked with fluorescent powder and observed at dark with a blacklight indicated that moths are primarily distributed high in the canopy. However, males shifted to a position lower in the canopy when pheromone dispensers were placed 2.1 m above the ground. Results suggest that pheromone dispensers be placed in the upper canopy for optimal disruption of codling moth mating.

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