Hypersensitive reaction and induced resistance in rice against the Asian rice gall midge Orseolia oryzae



Rice seedlings of the resistant variety Phalguna showed premature tillering, browning of central leaf, and tissue necrosis at the apical meristem following artificial infestation with avirulent biotype 1 of the Asian rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzae (Wood-Mason) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Tissue necrosis representing a typical hypersensitive reaction (HR), accompanied by maggot mortality, was observed within 4 days after infestation. However, reinfestation of secondary tillers subsequent to HR in primary tiller, did not lead to HR in secondary tillers though maggot mortality was seen. Artificial infestation with the weed gall midge O. fluvialis did not result in HR either in gall midge susceptible TN 1 or resistant Phalguna rice varieties. Resistance in Phalguna against the virulent biotype 4 could be induced by either prior, simultaneous, or subsequent infestation with the avirulent biotype 1. The duration of effectiveness of such induced resistance varied with the sequence and time lag between infestations.