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Keywords:

  • plant–insect interactions;
  • phenotypic plasticity;
  • induced defense;
  • herbivory;
  • phylogeny;
  • insect community structure;
  • costs of defense;
  • plant resistance

Abstract

This paper reviews current progress and makes recommendations for future studies of induced plant responses to herbivory in three research areas: the role of induction in structuring herbivore communities, costs associated with the expression of induced responses, and theory and data on the macro-evolution of induced responses. It is argued that although mechanistic approaches will be important for progress, it is also critical to maintain a holistic approach, including a consideration of field environments, multi-species interactions, and patterns over ecological and evolutionary time.