SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Alleyne M & Beckage NE (1997) Parasitism-induced effects on host growth and metabolic efficiency in tobacco hornworm larvae parasitized by Cotesia congregata. Journal of Insect Physiology 43: 407424.
  • Van Alphen JJM & Visser ME (1990) Superparasitism as an adaptive strategy for insect parasitoids. Annual Review of Entomology 35: 5979.
  • Arthur AP & Wylie HG (1959) Effects of host size on sex ratio, development time and size of Pimpla turionellae L. Entomophaga 4: 297301.
  • Ashfaq M, Braun L, Hegedus D & Erlandson M (2004) Estimating parasitism levels in Lygus spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae) field populations using standard and molecular techniques. Biocontrol Science and Technology 14: 731735.
  • Askew RR & Shaw MR (1986) Parasitoid communities: their size, structure and development. Insect Parasitoids (ed. by JWaage & DGreathead), pp. 225264. Academic Press, London, UK.
  • Bai B & Mackauer M (1992) Influence of superparasitism on development rate and adult size in a solitary parasitoid wasp, Aphidius ervi. Functional Ecology 6: 302307.
  • Barbosa P, Gross P & Kemper J (1991) Influence of plant allelochemicals on the tobacco hornworm and its parasitoid, Cotesia congregata. Ecology 72: 15671575.
  • Barbosa P, Saunders JA, Kemper J, Trumbule R, Olechno J & Martinat P (1986) Plant allelochemicals and insect parasitoids effects of nicotine on Cotesia congregata (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Hyposoter annulipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Journal of Chemical Ecology 12: 13191328.
  • Beck M & Strand MR (2005) Glc1.8 from Microplitis demolitor bracovirus induces a loss of adhesion and phagocytosis in insect High Five and S2 cells. Journal of Virology 79: 18611870.
  • Beckage NE (1985) Endocrine interactions between endo-parasitic insects and their hosts. Annual Review of Entomology 30: 371413.
  • Beckage NE & Riddiford LM (1983) Growth and development of the endo-parasitic wasp Apanteles congregatus– dependence on host nutritional status and parasite load. Physiological Entomology 8: 231241.
  • Beckage NE & Templeton TJ (1985) Temporal synchronization of emergence of Hyposoter exiguae and Hyposoter fugitivus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) with apolysis preceding larval molting in Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 78: 775782.
  • Beegle CC & Oatman ER (1975) Effect of a nuclear polyhedrosis-virus on relationship between Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and parasite, Hyposoter exiguae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 25: 5971.
  • Begon M, Harper JL & Townsend CR (1998) Ecology: Individuals, Populations and Communties. Blackwell Science, Oxford, UK.
  • Benrey B & Denno RF (1997) The slow-growth-high-mortality hypothesis: a test using the cabbage butterfly. Ecology 78: 987999.
  • Bentz JA & Barbosa P (1992) Effects of dietary nicotine and partial starvation of tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, on the survival and development of the parasitoid Cotesia congregata. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 65: 241245.
  • Bezemer TM, De Deyn GB, Bossinga TM, Van Dam NM, Harvey JA & Van Der Putten WH (2005) Soil community composition drives above-ground plant-herbivore–parasitoid interactions. Ecology Letters 8: 652661.
  • Bezemer TM, Wagenaar R, Van Dam NM & Wackers FL (2003) Interactions between above- and below-ground insect herbivores as mediated by the plant defense system. Oikos 101: 555562.
  • Blackburn TM (1991a) A comparative examination of lifespan and fecundity in parasitoid Hymenoptera. Journal of Animal Ecology 60: 151164.
  • Blackburn TM (1991b) Evidence for a fast slow continuum of life-history traits among parasitoid Hymenoptera. Functional Ecology 5: 6574.
  • Bottrell DG, Barbosa P & Gould F (1998) Manipulating natural enemies by plant variety selection and modification: a realistic strategy? Annual Review of Entomology 43: 347367.
  • Bowers MD (2003) Host-plant suitability and defensive chemistry of the Catalpa sphinx, Ceratomia catalpae. Journal of Chemical Ecology 29: 23592367.
  • Bowers MD & Puttick GM (1988) Response of generalist and specialist insects to qualitative allelochemical variation. Journal of Chemical Ecology 14: 319334.
  • Brodeur J & Vet LEM (1994) Usurpation of host behavior by a parasitic wasp. Animal Behaviour 48: 187192.
  • Byers JR, Yu DS & Jones JW (1993) Parasitism of the army cutworm, Euxoa auxiliaris (Grt) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), by Copidosoma bakeri (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and effect on crop damage. Canadian Entomologist 125: 329335.
  • Campbell BC & Duffey SS (1979) Tomatine and parasitic wasps – potential incompatibility of plant antibiosis with biological control. Science 205: 700702.
  • Carpenter JE, Pair SD & Fitt GP (1994) Ichneumon promissorius (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) – development on North American hosts. Journal of Economic Entomology 87: 929932.
  • Chapman RF (1998) The Insects: Structure and Function. Elsevier, New York, NY, USA.
  • Charnov EL (1982) The Theory of Sex Allocation. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, USA.
  • Charnov EL & Skinner SW (1985) Complementary approaches to the understanding of parasitoid oviposition decisions. Environmental Entomology 14: 383391.
  • Clancy KM & Price PW (1987) Rapid herbivore growth enhances enemy attack – sublethal plant defenses remain a paradox. Ecology 68: 733737.
  • Couty A, Down RE, Gatehouse AMR, Kaiser L, Pham-Delègue MH & Poppy GM (2001) Effects of artificial diet containing GNA and GNA-expressing potatoes on the development of the aphid parasitoid Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae). Journal of Insect Physiology 47: 13571366.
  • Craig TP, Itami JK & Price PW (1990) The window of vulnerability of a shoot-galling sawfly to attack by a parasitoid. Ecology 71: 14711482.
  • Croft P & Copland MJW (1995) The effect of host instar on the size and sex ratio of the endoparasitoid Dacnusa sibirica. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 74: 121124.
  • Curio E (1989) Is avian mortality preprogrammed? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 4: 8182.
  • Van Dam NM, Hadwich K & Baldwin IT (2000) Induced responses in Nicotiana attenuata affect behavior and growth of the specialist herbivore Manduca sexta. Oecologia 122: 371379.
  • Van Dam NM, Harvey JA, Wackers FL, Bezemer TM, Van Der Putten WH & Vet LEM (2003) Interactions between aboveground and below-ground induced responses against phytophages. Basic and Applied Ecology 4: 6377.
  • De Moraes CM, Cortesero AM, Stapel JO & Lewis WJ (1999) Intrinsic and extrinsic competitive interactions between two larval parasitoids of Heliothis virescens. Ecological Entomology 24: 402410.
  • Duffey SS, Bloem KA & Campbell BC (1986) Consequences of sequestration of plant natural products in plant-insect-parasitoid interactions. Interactions of Plant Resistance and Parasitoids and Predators of Insects (ed. by D JBoethel & DEikenberry), pp. 3160. Horwood Press, Chichester, UK.
  • Dushay MS & Beckage NE (1993) Dose-dependent separation of Cotesia congregata-associated polydnavirus effects on Manduca sexta larval development and immunity. Journal of Insect Physiology 39: 10291040.
  • El heneidy AH, Barbosa P & Gross P (1988) Influence of dietary nicotine on the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda and its parasitoid, the Ichneumonid wasp Hyposoter annulipes. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 46: 227232.
  • Elzinga JA, Harvey JA & Biere A (2003) The effects of host weight at parasitism on fitness correlates of the gregarious koinobiont parasitoid Microplitis tristis and consequences for food consumption by its host, Hadena bicruris. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 108: 95106.
  • Fidgen JG, Eveleigh ES & Quiring DT (2000) Influence of host size on oviposition behaviour and fitness of Elachertus cacoeciae attacking a low-density population of spruce budworm Choristoneura fumiferana larvae. Ecological Entomology 25: 156164.
  • Fleming J (1992) Polydnaviruses – mutualists and pathogens. Annual Review of Entomology 37: 401425.
  • Fritz RS (1982) Selection for host modification by insect parasitoids. Evolution 36: 283288.
  • Gange AC (2001) Species-specific responses of a root- and shoot-feeding insect to arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of its host plant. New Phytologist 150: 611618.
  • Gange AC & Brown VK (1989) Effects of root herbivory by an insect on a foliar-feeding species, mediated through changes in the host plant. Oecologia 81: 3842.
  • Gauld I & Bolton B (1988) The Hymenoptera. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
  • Giamoustaris A & Mithen R (1995) The effect of modifying the glucosinolate content of leaves of oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp oleifera) on its interaction with specialist and generalist pests. Annals of Applied Biology 126: 347363.
  • Gittleman JL & Harvey PH (1980) Why are distasteful prey not cryptic? Nature 286: 149150.
  • Godfray HCJ (1994) Parasitoids: Behavioral and Evolutionary Ecology. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, USA.
  • Grbic M & Strand MR (1998) Shifts in the life history of parasitic wasps correlate with pronounced alterations in early development. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 95: 10971101.
  • Gunasena GH, Vinson SB & Williams HJ (1989) Interrelationships between growth of Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and that of its parasitoid, Campoletis sonorensis (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 82: 187191.
  • Gunasena GH, Vinson SB & Williams HJ (1990) Effects of nicotine on growth, development, and survival of the tobacco budworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and the parasitoid Campoletis sonorensis (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 83: 17771782.
  • Harvey JA, Harvey IF & Thompson DJ (1993) The effect of superparasitism on development of the solitary parasitoid wasp, Venturia canescens (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Ecological Entomology 18: 203208.
  • Harvey JA, Harvey IF & Thompson DJ (1994) Flexible larval growth allows use of a range of host sizes by a parasitoid wasp. Ecology 75: 14201428.
  • Harvey JA (1996) Venturia canescens parasitizing Galleria mellonella and Anagasta kuehniella: is the parasitoid a conformer or regulator? Journal of Insect Physiology 42: 10171025.
  • Harvey JA & Vet LEM (1997) Venturia canescens parasitizing Galleria mellonella and Anagasta kuehniella: differing suitability of two hosts with highly variable growth potential. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 84: 93100.
  • Harvey JA, Vet LEM, Jiang NQ & Gols R (1998) Nutritional ecology of the interaction between larvae of the gregarious ectoparasitoid, Muscidifurax raptorellus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), and their pupal host, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae). Physiological Entomology 23: 113120.
  • Harvey JA, Jervis MA, Gols R, Jiang NQ & Vet LEM (1999) Development of the parasitoid, Cotesia rubecula (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Pieris rapae and Pieris brassicae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae): evidence for host regulation. Journal of Insect Physiology 45: 173182.
  • Harvey JA (2000) Dynamic effects of parasitism by an endoparasitoid wasp on the development of two host species: implications for host quality and parasitoid fitness. Ecological Entomology 25: 267278.
  • Harvey JA, Corley LS & Strand MR (2000a) Competition induces adaptive shifts in caste ratios of a polyembryonic wasp. Nature 406: 183186.
  • Harvey JA, Kadash K & Strand MR (2000b) Differences in larval feeding behavior correlate with altered developmental strategies in two parasitic wasps: implications for the size-fitness hypothesis. Oikos 88: 621629.
  • Harvey JA & Strand MR (2002) The developmental strategies of endoparasitoid wasps vary with host feeding ecology. Ecology 83: 24392451.
  • Harvey JA, Van Dam NM & Gols R (2003) Interactions over four trophic levels: foodplant quality affects development of a hyperparasitoid as mediated through a herbivore and its primary parasitoid. Journal of Animal Ecology 72: 529531.
  • Harvey JA, Bezemer TM, Elzinga JA & Strand MR (2004a) Development of the solitary endoparasitoid Microplitis demolitor: host quality does not increase with host age and size. Ecological Entomology 29: 3543.
  • Harvey JA, Witjes LMA & Wagenaar R (2004b) Development of hyperparasitoid wasp Lysibia nana (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) in a multitrophic framework. Environmental Entomology 33: 14881496.
  • Harvey JA, Vet LEM, Witjes LMA & Bezemer TM (2005a) Remarkable similarity in body mass of a secondary hyperparasitoid Lysibia nana and its primary parasitoid host Cotesia glomerata emerging from cocoons of a comparable size. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology in press.
  • Harvey JA, Van Nouhuys S & Biere A (2005b) Effects of quantitative variation in allelochemicals in Plantago lanceolata on developmentof a generalist and a specialist herbivore and their endoparasitoids. Journal of Chemical Ecology 31: 287302.
  • Hirshfield MF & Tinkle DW (1975) Natural selection and evolution of reproductive effort. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 72: 22272231.
  • Hochberg ME (1991) Intra-host interactions between a Braconid endoparasitoid, Apanteles glomeratus, and a baculovirus for larvae of Pieris brassicae. Journal of Animal Ecology 60: 5163.
  • Hunter AF (2000) Gregariousness and repellent defences in the survival of phytophagous insects. Oikos 91: 213224.
  • Irabagon TA & Brooks WM (1974) Interaction of Campoletis sonorensis and a nuclear polyhedrosis virus in larvae of Heliothis virescens. Journal of Economic Entomology 67: 229231.
  • Jervis MA, Heimpel GE, Ferns PN, Harvey JA & Kidd NAC (2001) Life-history strategies in parasitoid wasps: a comparative analysis of ‘ovigeny’. Journal of Animal Ecology 70: 442458.
  • Johnson MT & Gould F (1992) Interaction of genetically engineered host plant resistance and natural enemies of Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in tobacco. Environmental Entomology 21: 586597.
  • Jones DB, Giles KL, Chen Y & Shufran KA (2005) Estimation of hymenopteran parasitism in cereal aphids using molecular markers. Journal of Economic Entomology 98: 217221.
  • Jones RL & Lewis WJ (1971) Physiology of host–parasite relationship between Heliothis zea and Microplitis croceipes. Journal of Insect Physiology 17: 921&.
  • Kalule T & Wright DJ (2005) Effect of cultivars with varying levels of resistance to aphids on development time, sex ratio, size and longevity of the parasitoid Aphidius colemani. Biocontrology 50: 235246.
  • Karban R & Baldwin IT (1997) Induced Responses to Herbivory (Interspecific Interactions). University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, USA.
  • King BH (1987) Offspring sex-ratios in parasitoid wasps. Quarterly Review of Biology 62: 367396.
  • Laing JE & Corrigan JE (1987) Intrinsic competition between the gregarious parasite, Cotesia glomeratus and the solitary parasite, Cotesia rubecula (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) for their host, Artogeia rapae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Entomophaga 32: 493501.
  • Lawrence PO (1990) The biochemical and physiological effects of insect hosts on the development and ecology of their insect parasites – an overview. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology 13: 217228.
  • Leather SR (1985) Oviposition preferences in relation to larval growth rates and survival in the pine beauty moth, Panolis flammea. Ecological Entomology 10: 213217.
  • Levin SA (1999) Fragile Dominion: Complexity and the Commons. Perseus Books, Cambridge, MA, USA.
  • Van Loon JJA & Schoonhoven LM (1999) Specialist deterrent chemoreceptors enable Pieris caterpillars to discriminate between chemically different deterrents. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 91: 2935.
  • Macel M, Klinkhamer PGL, Vrieling K & Van Der Meijden E (2002) Diversity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Senecio species does not affect the specialist herbivore Tyria jacobaeae. Oecologia 133: 541550.
  • Mackauer M & Sequeira R (1993) Patterns of development in insect parasites. Parasites and Pathogens of Insects (ed. by NEBeckage, SNThompson & BAFederici), pp. 120. Academic Press, New York, NY, USA.
  • Mackauer M, Sequeira R & Otto M (1997) Growth and development in parasitoid wasps: adaptation to variable host resources. Vertical Food Web Interactions. Evolutionary Patterns and Driving Forces (ed. by KDettner, GBauer & WVolkl), pp. 191203. Springer, Berlin, Germany.
  • Malva C, Varricchio P, Falabella P, La Scaleia R, Graziani F & Pennachio F (2004) Physiological and molecular interaction in the host–parasitoid system Heliothis virescens–Toxoneuron nigriceps: current status and future perspectives. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 34: 177183.
  • Marktl RC, Stauffer C & Schopf A (2002) Interspecific competition between the braconid endoparasitoids Glyptapanteles porthetriae and Glyptapanteles liparidis in Lymantria dispar larvae. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 105: 97109.
  • Masters GJ & Brown VK (1997) Host-plant mediated interactions between spatially separated herbivores: effects on community structure. Multitrophic Interactions in Terrestrial Ecosystems (ed. by A CGange & V KBrown), pp. 217238. Blackwell Science, Oxford, UK.
  • Masters GJ, Brown VK & Gange AC (1993) Plant mediated interactions between above-ground and below-ground insect herbivores. Oikos 66: 148151.
  • Masters GJ, Jones TH & Rogers M (2001) Host-plant mediated effects of root herbivory on insect seed predators and their parasitoids. Oecologia 127: 246250.
  • Matthews HJ, Smith I, Bell HA & Edwards JP (2004) Interactions between the parasitoid Meteorus gyrator (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and a granulovirus in Lacanobia oleracea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Environmental Entomology 33: 949957.
  • Mayhew PJ & Blackburn TM (1999) Does development mode organize life-history traits in the parasitoid Hymenoptera? Journal of Animal Ecology 68: 906916.
  • Meiners T, Kopf A, Stein C & Hilker M (1997) Chemical signals mediating interactions between Galeruca tanaceti L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and its egg parasitoid Oomyzus galerucivorus (Hedqvits) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Journal of Insect Behavior 10: 523539.
  • Michel-Salzat A & Whitfield JB (2004) Preliminary evolutionary relationships within the parasitoid wasp genus Cotesia (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae): combined analysis of four genes. Systematic Entomology 29: 371382.
  • Nakamatsu Y & Tanaka T (2004) Food resource use of hyperparasitoid Trichomalopsis apanteloctena (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), an idiobiotic ectoparasitoid. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 97: 994999.
  • Nussbaumer C & Schopf A (2000) Development of the solitary larval endoparasitoid Glyptapanteles porthetriae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in its host Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). European Journal of Entomology 97: 355361.
  • Ode PJ, Berenbaum MR, Zangerl AR & Hardy ICW (2004) Host plant, host plant chemistry and the polyembryonic parasitoid Copidosoma sosares: indirect effects in a tritrophic interaction. Oikos 104: 388400.
  • Orr DB & Boethel DJ (1986) Influence of plant antibiosis through four trophic levels. Oecologia 70: 242249.
  • Otto M & Mackauer M (1998) The developmental strategy of an idiobiont ectoparasitoid, Dendrocerus carpenteri: influence of variations in host quality on offspring growth and fitness. Oecologia 117: 353364.
  • Pennachio F, Tranfagia A & Malva C (2003) Host–parasitoid antagonism in insects: new opportunities for pest control? Agro Food Industry Hi-Tech 14: 5356.
  • Petitt FL & Wietlisbach DO (1993) Effects of host instar and size on parasitization efficiency and life-history parameters of Opius dissitus. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 66: 227236.
  • Petters RM & Stefanelli J (1983) Developmental arrest of endoparasitoid wasp larvae (Nemeritis canescens Grav) caused by an ectoparasitoid wasp (Bracon hebetor Say). Journal of Experimental Zoology 225: 459465.
  • Price PW (1972) Parasitoids utilizing same host – adaptive nature of differences in size and form. Ecology 53: 190&.
  • Price PW, Bouton CE, Gross P, McPheron BA, Thompson JN & Weis AE (1980) Interactions among three trophic levels – influence of plants on interactions between insect herbivores and natural enemies. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 11: 4165.
  • Van Der Putten WH, Vet LEM, Harvey JA & Wackers FL (2001) Linking above- and below-ground multitrophic interactions of plants, herbivores, pathogens, and their antagonists. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 16: 547554.
  • Quicke DLJ (1997) Parasitic Wasps. Chapman & Hall, London, UK.
  • Rahman M (1970) Effect of parasitism on food consumption of Pieris rapae larvae. Journal of Economic Entomology 63: 820821.
  • Raimo B (1975) Infecting gypsy moth, Porthetria dispar (L) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) with nuclear polyhedrosis-virus vectored by Apanteles melanoscelus (Ratzeburg) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Journal of the New York Entomological Society 83: 246246.
  • Reineke A, Roberts HLS & Schmidt O (2004) Two coexisting lines of the endoparasitoid Venturia canescens show differences in reproductive success under conspecific superparasitism. Journal of Insect Physiology 50: 167173.
  • Roberts HLS, True O & Schmidt O (2004) The development of the endoparasitoid wasp Venturia caneseens in superparasitised Ephestia kuehniella. Journal of Insect Physiology 50: 839846.
  • Roff DA (2001) Life History Evolution. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA, USA.
  • Root RB (1967) Niche exploitation pattern of blue-gray gnatcatcher. Ecological Monographs 37: 317350.
  • Sait SM, Begon M, Thompson DJ & Harvey JA (1996) Parasitism of baculovirus-infected Plodia interpunctella by Venturia canescens and subsequent virus transmission. Functional Ecology 10: 586591.
  • Salt G (1940) Experimental studies in insect parasitism. VII. The effects of different hosts on the parasite Trichogramma evanescens. Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London Series A 8195.
  • Salt G (1941) The effects of hosts upon their insect parasites. Biological Reviews 239264.
  • Sandlan KP (1982) Host suitability and its effects on parasitoid biology in Coccygomimus turionellae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 75: 217221.
  • Schoonhoven LM, Jermy T & Van Loon JJA (1998) Insect-Plant Biology: From Physiology to Evolution. Chapman & Hall, London, UK.
  • Sequeira R & Mackauer M (1992) Nutritional ecology of an insect host parasitoid association – the pea aphid Aphidius ervi system. Ecology 73: 183189.
  • Sequeira R & Mackauer M (1993) The nutritional ecology of a parasitoid wasp, Ephedrus californicus Baker (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae). Canadian Entomologist 125: 423430.
  • Slansky F (1978) Utilization of energy and nitrogen by larvae of imported cabbageworm, Pieris rapae, (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) as affected by parasitism by Apanteles glomeratus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Environmental Entomology 7: 179185.
  • Slansky F (1986) Nutritional ecology of endoparasitic insects and their hosts – an overview. Journal of Insect Physiology 32: 255261.
  • Smilowitz Z & Iwantsch GF (1973) Relationships between the parasitoid Hyposoter exiguae and the cabbage looper Trichoplusia ni: effects of host age on developmental rate of the parasitoid. Environmental Entomology 2: 759763.
  • Smith DAS (1978) Cardiac glycosides in Danaus chrysippus (L) provide some protection against an insect parasitoid. Experientia 34: 844845.
  • Soldaat LL & Vrieling K (1992) The influence of nutritional and genetic factors on larval performance of the cinnabar moth, Tyria jacobaeae. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 62: 2936.
  • Soler R, Bezemer TM, Van Der Putten WH, Vet LEM & Harvey JA (2005) Root herbivore effects on above-ground herbivore, parasitoid and hyperparasitoid performance via changes in plant quality. Journal of Animal Ecology in press.
  • Stearns SC (1989) Trade-offs in life-history evolution. Functional Ecology 3: 259268.
  • Stearns SC (1992) The Evolution of Life Histories. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
  • Stowe KA (1998) Realized defense of artificially selected lines of Brassica rapa: effects of quantitative genetic variation in foliar glucosinolate concentration. Environmental Entomology 27: 11661174.
  • Strand MR (2000) Developmental traits and life-history evoluton in parasitoids. Parasitoid Population Biology (ed. by M EHochberg & A RIves), pp. 139162. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, USA.
  • Strand MR, Johnson JA & Culin JD (1988) Developmental interactions between the parasitoid Microplitis demolitor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and its host Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 81: 822830.
  • Sznajder B & Harvey JA (2003) Second and third trophic level effects of differences in plant species reflect dietary specialisation of herbivores and their endoparasitoids. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 109: 7382.
  • Tanaka T, Sato Y & Hidaka T (1984) Developmental interaction between Leucania separata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its Braconid parasitoid, Microplitis mediator (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 77: 9197.
  • Teder T & Tammaru T (2002) Cascading effects of variation in plant vigour on the relative performance of insect herbivores and their parasitoids. Ecological Entomology 27: 94104.
  • Tillman PG, Styer EL & Hamm JJ (2004) Transmission of Ascovirus from Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) by three parasitoids and effects of virus on survival of parasitoid Cardiochiles nigriceps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Environmental Entomology 33: 633643.
  • Tullberg BS & Hunter AF (1996) Evolution of larval gregariousness in relation to repellent defences and warning coloration in tree-feeding Macrolepidoptera: a phylogenetic analysis based on independent contrasts. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 57: 253276.
  • Turlings TCJ & Benrey B (1998) Effects of plant metabolites on the behavior and development of parasitic wasps. Ecoscience 5: 321333.
  • Utsunomiya A & Iwabuchi K (2002) Interspecific competition between the polyembryonic wasp Copidosoma floridanum and the gregarious endoparasitoid Glytapanteles pallipes. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 104: 353362.
  • Vinson SB (1972) Effect of parasitoid, Campoletis sonorensis, on growth of its host, Heliothis virescens. Journal of Insect Physiology 18: 15091514.
  • Vinson SB (1988) Physiological studies of parasitoids reveal new approaches to the biological control of insect pests. ISI Atlas of Science 1: 2532.
  • Vinson SB (1990) Physiological interactions between the host genus Heliothis and its guild of parasitoids. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology 13: 6381.
  • Vinson SB & Dahlman DL (1989) Physiological relationship between Braconid endo-parasites and their hosts – the Microplitis croceipes Heliothis spp. system. Southwestern Entomologist 1737.
  • Vinson SB & Iwantsch GF (1980) Host suitability for insect parasitoids. Annual Review of Entomology 25: 397419.
  • Vinson SB & Sroka P (1978) Effects of superparasitism by a solitary parasitoid on the host, parasitoid and field samplings. Southwestern Entomologist 3: 299301.
  • Visser ME (1994) The importance of being large – the relationship between size and fitness in females of the parasitoid Aphaereta minuta (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Journal of Animal Ecology 63: 963978.
  • Wang XG & Liu SS (2002) Effects of host age on the performance of Diadromus collaris, a pupal parasitoid of Plutella xylostella. Biocontrol 47: 293307.
  • Wani M, Iwabuchi K & Mitsuhashi J (1994) Developmental responses of Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae to parasitism by a braconid parasitoid, Apanteles galleriae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology 29: 193201.
  • Webb BA (1998) Polydnavirus biology genome structure and evolution. The Insect Viruses (ed. by , A Ball & L KMiller), pp. 105139. Plenum Press, New York, USA.
  • Williams IS (1999) Slow-growth, high-mortality – a general hypothesis, or is it? Ecological Entomology 24: 490495.
  • Wurst S & Jones TH (2003) Indirect effects of earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa) on an above-ground tri-trophic interaction. Pedobiologia 47: 9197.
  • Young SY & Yearian WC (1989) Nuclear polyhedrosis-virus transmission by Microplitis croceipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) adult females reared in infected Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae. Journal of Entomological Science 24: 500506.