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A comparison of various mating disruption technologies for control of two internally feeding Lepidoptera in apples

Authors

  • Eric Bohnenblust,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Entomology, The Pennsylvania State University, 101 Merkle Building Orchard Rd, University Park, 16802 PA, USA
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  • Larry A. Hull,

    1. Fruit Research & Extension Center, Entomology, The Pennsylvania State University, 290 University Dr, Biglerville, 17307 PA, USA
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  • Greg Krawczyk

    1. Fruit Research & Extension Center, Entomology, The Pennsylvania State University, 290 University Dr, Biglerville, 17307 PA, USA
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Eric Bohnenblust, Department of Entomology, The Pennsylvania State University, 101 Merkle Building Orchard Rd, University Park, 16802 PA, USA. E-mail: ewb14@psu.edu

Abstract

Sex pheromone mating disruption (MD) is an approach used to control several moth pest species of pome fruit by disrupting the ability of the males to find females and consequently prevent mating. The following experiments were performed to determine the effectiveness of several new and experimental sex pheromone MD technologies, and dispenser densities for simultaneous control of the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.), and the oriental fruit moth (OFM), Grapholita molesta (Busck) (both Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in Pennsylvania apple orchards. In one study, three MD approaches to control CM and oriental fruit moth – CM and OFM Disrupt Micro-Flakes, Isomate CM/OFM TT, and both a CideTrak OFM and a CideTrak CM dispenser containing both codlemone and pear ester – and an insecticides-only treatment were compared over the course of 2 years. In the other studies, the efficacy of several CheckMate Duel dispenser densities (i.e., 250, 375, 425, and 500 dispensers ha−1) were compared against Isomate CM/OFM TT, and an insecticides-only treatment. The CideTrak CM/pear ester combination and Isomate CM/OFM TT treatments both substantially reduced CM captures in traps in 2007 and 2008. Meanwhile, OFM trap shutdown was highest in the CheckMate Duel densities of 375 (99.9 ± 0.08%) and 500 dispensers ha−1 (98.9 ± 0.07%) and the Isomate CM/OFM TT treatment (98.0 ± 1.13%), and lowest in the 250 dispensers ha−1 density treatment (94.3 ± 3.23%). In orchards where OFM is the dominant pest species, a CheckMate Duel dispenser density of 375 ha−1 is necessary for effective control, whereas higher densities are needed to control CM.

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