This study focuses on the resistance of sugarcane, Saccharum spec. (Poaceae), to the sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), which vectors Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV). Resistance was characterized in cultivar R 365, using a 3-year field trial and laboratory experiments on potted plantlets and excised leaves. R 365 reduced aphid populations in the field by antixenosis and antibiosis. Using the electrical penetration graph technique, we detected delayed aphid salivation in phloem and inhibition of passive phloem sap uptake in R 365. The resistance factors also proved to be effective against the corn leaf aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), another vector of SCYLV.