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Keywords:

  • C22;
  • F14;
  • Q17
  • Agricultural exports;
  • agricultural imports;
  • autoregressive distributed lag;
  • cointegration

Abstract

This article examines the dynamic effects of changes in bilateral exchange rates on changes in bilateral trade of bulk, intermediate, and consumer-oriented agricultural products between the United States and its 10 major trading partners. We find that, for consumer-oriented products, U.S. exports are highly sensitive to bilateral exchange rates in both the short and long run, while U.S. imports are mostly responsive only in the short run. For bulk products, on the other hand, U.S. exports and imports are relatively insensitive to exchange rate changes in both the short and long run. For intermediate products, exports and imports are responsive to exchange rate changes in the short run, but not in the long run. It is also found that income of the United States and its trading partners has a significant effect on U.S. exports and imports of the three types of agricultural products in both the short and long run.