Drawing on survey data, this article identifies the determinants of variations in farm gate milk prices for three CIS countries (Armenia, Moldova, and Ukraine). We apply a multi-level modeling approach, specifically a bootstrapped mixed-effects linear regression model. The analysis suggests three main strategies to improve the price received by farmers for their output: consolidation, competition for output, and stable supply chain relationships. In Armenia and Ukraine selling through a marketing cooperative has a significant, positive, albeit modest, effect on farm gate milk prices. In all three countries studied, the size of dairy operations, trust, and contracting also affect positively the prices received by farmers.