Determinants of herbicide use in rice production in the Philippines

Authors

  • Jesusa C. Beltran,

    Corresponding author
    1. Philippine Rice Research Institute (PhilRice), Maligaya, Science City of Muñoz, Nueva Ecija 3119, Philippines
    2. School of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley 6009, Western Australia
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  • Benedict White,

    1. School of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley 6009, Western Australia
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  • Michael Burton,

    1. School of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley 6009, Western Australia
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  • Graeme J. Doole,

    1. School of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley 6009, Western Australia
    2. Center for Environmental Economics and Policy, School of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley 6009, Western Australia
    3. Department of Economics, Waikato University, Private Bag 3109, Hamilton, New Zealand
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  • David J. Pannell

    1. School of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley 6009, Western Australia
    2. Center for Environmental Economics and Policy, School of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley 6009, Western Australia
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  • Data Appendix Available Online
    A data appendix to replicate main results is available in the online version of this article. Please note: Wiley-Blackwell is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting information supplied by the authors. Any queries (other than missing material) should be directed to the corresponding author for the article.

Tel./fax: 63 44 4560 285. E-mail address: jcbeltran20@yahoo.com (J.C. Beltran).

Abstract

This study identifies farm-specific and market factors affecting the adoption of herbicides and the level of herbicide use by rice farmers in the Philippines. This requires the application of a modified version of Heckman's two-step method to estimate a random-effects double-hurdle model for unbalanced panel data. The age of the farmer, household size, and irrigation use are significant determinants of the decision of farmers to adopt herbicides as an alternative to manual weeding, while economic variables such as the price of herbicides, total income, and access to credit determine the level of herbicide use. Determinants of both adoption and level are land ownership, farm area, and the method of crop establishment. These results are potentially relevant when designing policies to reduce excessive herbicide use or to encourage the adoption of alternative weed control methods such as integrated weed management.

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