SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Abadulla E , Tzanov T , Costa S , Robra KH , Cavaco-Paulo A & Gubitz GM (2000) Decolorization and detoxification of textile dyes with a laccase from Trametes hirsuta. Appl Environ Microbiol 66: 33573362.
  • Abdel-Raheem A & Shearer CA (2002) Extracellular enzyme production by freshwater ascomycetes. Fungal Diversity 11: 119.
  • Ahn M Y , Dec J , Kim JE & Bollag JM (2002) Treatment of 2,4-dichlorophenol polluted soil with free and immobilized laccase. J Environ Qual 31: 15091515.
  • Alexandre G & Zhulin IB (2000) Laccases are widespread in bacteria. Trends Biotechnol 18: 4142.
  • Allen AC & Walker JRL (1988) The selective inhibition of catechol oxidase by salicylhydroxamic acid. Phytochemistry 27: 30753076.
  • Anderson DW & Nicholson RL (1996) Characterization of a laccase in the conidial mucilage of Colletotrichum graminicola. Mycologia 88: 9961002.
  • Antorini M , Herpoel-Gimbert I , Choinowski T , Sigoillot JC , Asther M , Winterhalter K & Piontek K (2002) Purification, crystallisation and X-ray diffraction study of fully functional laccases from two ligninolytic fungi. Biochim Biophys Acta 1594: 109114.
  • Artigas J , Romani AM & Sabater S (2004) Organic matter decomposition by fungi in a Mediterranean forested stream: contribution of streambed substrata. Ann Limnol 40: 269277.
  • Assavanig A , Amornkitticharoen B , Ekpaisal N , Meevootisom V & Flegel TW (1992) Isolation, characterization and function of laccase from Trichoderma. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 38: 198202.
  • Baiocco P , Barreca AM , Fabbrini M , Galli C & Gentili P (2003) Promoting laccase activity towards non-phenolic substrates: a mechanistic investigation with some laccase-mediator systems. Org Biomol Chem 1: 191197.
  • Balakshin M , Capanema E , Chen CL , Gratzl J , Kirkman A & Gracz H (2001) Biobleaching of pulp with dioxygen in the laccase-mediator system–reaction mechanisms for degradation of residual lignin. J Mol Catal B-Enzym 13: 116.
  • Baldrian P (2003) Interactions of heavy metals with white-rot fungi. Enzyme Microb Technol 32: 7891.
  • Baldrian P (2004) Purification and characterization of laccase from the white-rot fungus Daedalea quercina and decolorization of synthetic dyes by the enzyme. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 63: 560563.
  • Baldrian P (2004) Increase of laccase activity during interspecific interactions of white-rot fungi. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 50: 245253.
  • Baldrian P , In Der Wiesche C , Gabriel J , Nerud F & Zadrazil F (2000) Influence of cadmium and mercury on activities of ligninolytic enzymes and degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by Pleurotus ostreatus in soil. Appl Environ Microbiol 66: 24712478.
  • Banerjee UC & Vohra RM (1991) Production of laccase by Curvularia sp. Folia Microbiol 36: 343346.
  • Barriere F , Ferry Y , Rochefort D & Leech D (2004) Targetting redox polymers as mediators for laccase oxygen reduction in a membrane-less biofuel cell. Electrochem Commun 6: 237241.
  • Bekker EG , Petrova SD , Ermolova OV , Eliasashvili VI & Sinitsyn AP (1990) Isolation, purification, and certain properties of laccase from Cerrena unicolor. Biochemistry (Mosc) 55: 15061510.
  • Bertrand G (1896) Sur la presence simultanee de la laccase et de la tyrosinase dans le suc de quelques champignons. C. R. Hebd. Seances Acad Sci 123: 463465.
  • Bertrand T , Jolivalt C , Briozzo P , Caminade E , Joly N , Madzak C & Mougin C (2002) Crystal structure of a four-copper laccase complexed with an arylamine: Insights into substrate recognition and correlation with kinetics. Biochemistry 41: 73257333.
  • Billal F & Thurston CF (1996) Purification of laccase II from Armillaria mellea and comparison of its properties with those of laccase I. Mycol Res 100: 10991105.
  • Binz T & Canevascini G (1997) Purification and partial characterization of the extracellular laccase from Ophiostoma novo-ulmi. Curr Microbiol 35: 278281.
  • Blaich R & Esser K (1975) Function of enzymes in wood destroying fungi. 2. Multiple forms of laccase in white rot fungi. Arch Microbiol 103: 271277.
  • Boerner REJ & Brinkman JA (2003) Fire frequency and soil enzyme activity in southern Ohio oak-hickory forests. Appl Soil Ecol 23: 137146.
  • Bollag JM (1991) Enzymatic binding of pesticide degradation products to soil organic-matter and their possible release. ACS Symp Ser 459: 122132.
  • Bollag JM , Chu HL , Rao MA & Gianfreda L (2003) Enzymatic oxidative transformation of chlorophenol mixtures. J Environ Qual 32: 6369.
  • Bollag JM & Myers C (1992) Detoxification of aquatic and terrestrial sites through binding of pollutants to humic substances. Sci Total Environ 118: 357366.
  • Bonomo RP , Boudet AM , Cozzolino R , Santoro E , Rizzarelli AM , Sterjiades R & Zapalla R (1998) A comparative study of two isoforms of laccase secreted by the “white-rot” fungus Rigidoporus lignosus, exhibiting significant structural and functional differences. J Inorg Biochem 71: 205211.
  • Boudet AM (2000) Lignins and lignification: selected issues. Plant Physiol Biochem 38: 8196.
  • Bourbonnais R , Leech D & Paice MG (1998) Electrochemical analysis of the interactions of laccase mediators with lignin model compounds. Biochim Biophys Acta 1379: 381390.
  • Bourbonnais R & Paice MG (1990) Oxidation of non-phenolic substrates. An expanded role for laccase in lignin biodegradation. FEBS Lett 267: 99102.
  • Bourbonnais R & Paice MG (1996) Enzymatic delignification of kraft pulp using laccase and a mediator. Tappi J 79: 199204.
  • Bourbonnais R , Paice MG , Freiermuth B , Bodie E & Borneman S (1997) Reactivities of various mediators and laccases with kraft pulp and lignin model compounds. Appl Environ Microbiol 63: 46274632.
  • Brown MA , Zhao ZW & Mauk AG (2002) Expression and characterization of a recombinant multi-copper oxidase: laccase IV from Trametes versicolor. Inorg Chim Acta 331: 232238.
  • Burke RM & Cairney JWG (2002) Laccases and other polyphenol oxidases in ecto- and ericoid mycorrhizal fungi. Mycorrhiza 12: 105116.
  • Cairney JWG & Burke RM (1998) Do ecto- and ericoid mycorrhizal fungi produce peroxidase activity? Mycorrhiza 8: 6165.
  • Call HP & Mucke I (1997) History, overview and applications of mediated lignolytic systems, especially laccase-mediator-systems (Lignozym®-process). J Biotechnol 53: 163202.
  • Call HP & Mucke I (1997) History, overview and applications of mediated lignolytic systems, especially laccase-mediator-systems (Lignozym®-process). J Biotechnol 53: 163202.
  • Calvo A , Copapatino MJ , Alonso LO & Gonzalez AE (1998) Studies of the production and characterization of laccase activity in the basidiomycete Coriolopsis gallica, an efficient decolorizer of alkaline effluents. Arch Microbiol 171: 3136.
  • Camarero S , Ibarra D , Martínez MJ & Martínez AT (2005) Lignin-derived compounds as efficient laccase mediators for decolorization of different types of recalcitrant dyes. Appl Environ Microbiol 71: 17751784.
  • Cambria MT , Cambria A , Ragusa S & Rizzarelli E (2000) Production, purification, and properties of an extracellular laccase from Rigidoporus lignosus. Protein Expr Purif 18: 141147.
  • Campos R , Kandelbauer A , Robra KH , Cavaco-Paulo A & Gubitz GM (2001) Indigo degradation with purified laccases from Trametes hirsuta and Sclerotium rolfsii. J Biotechnol 89: 131139.
  • Carreiro MM , Sinsabaugh RL , Repert DA & Parkhurst DF (2000) Microbial enzyme shifts explain litter decay responses to simulated nitrogen deposition. Ecology 81: 23592365.
  • Chambers SM , Burke RM , Brooks PR & Cairney JWG (1999) Molecular and biochemical evidence for manganese-dependent peroxidase activity in Tylospora fibrillosa. Mycol Res 103: 10981102.
  • Chamuris GP , Koziol-Kotch S & Brouse TM (2000) Screening fungi isolated from woody compost for lignin-degrading potential. Compost Sci Util 8: 611.
  • Chefetz B , Chen Y & Hadar Y (1998) Purification and characterization of laccase from Chaetomium thermophilium and its role in humification. Appl Environ Microbiol 64: 31753179.
  • Chefetz B , Kerem Z , Chen Y & Hadar Y (1998) Isolation and partial characterization of laccase from a thermophilic composted municipal solid waste. Soil Biol Biochem 30: 10911098.
  • Chen DM , Bastias BA , Taylor AFS & Cairney JWG (2003) Identification of laccase-like genes in ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes and transcriptional regulation by nitrogen in Piloderma byssinum. New Phytol 157: 547554.
  • Chen S , Ge W & Buswell JA (2004) Biochemical and molecular characterization of a laccase from the edible straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea. Eur J Biochem 271: 318328.
  • Chen DM , Taylor AFS , Burke RM & Cairney JWG (2001) Identification of genes for lignin peroxidases and manganese peroxidases in ectomycorrhizal fungi. New Phytol 152: 151158.
  • Chivukula M & Renganathan V (1995) Phenolic azo dye oxidation by laccase from Pyricularia oryzae. Appl Environ Microbiol 61: 43744377.
  • Cho SJ , Park SJ , Lim JS , Rhee YH & Shin KS (2002) Oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by laccase of Coriolus hirsutus. Biotechnol Lett 24: 13371340.
  • Claus H (2003) Laccases and their occurrence in prokaryotes. Arch Microbiol 179: 145150.
  • Claus H , Faber G & Konig H (2002) Redox-mediated decolorization of synthetic dyes by fungal laccases. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 59: 672678.
  • Claus H & Filip Z (1990) Effects of clays and other solids on the activity of phenoloxidases produced by some fungi and actinomycetes. Soil Biol Biochem 22: 483488.
  • Claus H & Filip Z (1998) Degradation and transformation of aquatic humic substances by laccase-producing fungi Cladosporium cladosporioides and Polyporus versicolor. Acta Hydrochim Hydrobiol 26: 180185.
  • Collins PJ , Kotterman MJJ , Field JA & Dobson ADW (1996) Oxidation of anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene by laccases from Trametes versiocolor. Appl Environ Microbiol 62: 45634567.
  • Criquet S , Farnet AM , Tagger S & Le Petit J (2000) Annual variations of phenoloxidase activities in an evergreen oak litter: influence of certain biotic and abiotic factors. Soil Biol Biochem 32: 15051513.
  • Criquet S , Tagger S , Vogt G , Iacazio G & Le Petit J (1999) Laccase activity of forest litter. Soil Biol Biochem 31: 12391244.
  • Crowe JD & Olsson S (2001) Induction of laccase activity in Rhizoctonia solani by antagonistic Pseudomonas fluorescens strains and a range of chemical treatments. Appl Environ Microbiol 67: 20882094.
  • Curir P , Thurston CF , Daquila F , Pasini C & Marchesini A (1997) Characterization of a laccase secreted by Armillaria mellea pathogenic for Genista. Plant Physiol Biochem 35: 147153.
  • Dahiya JS , Singh D & Nigam P (1998) Characterisation of laccase produced by Coniothyrium minitans. J Basic Microbiol 38: 349359.
  • Das N , Chakraborty TK & Mukherjee M (2000) Purification and characterization of laccase-1 from Pleurotus florida. Folia Microbiol 45: 447451.
  • Dawel G , Kastner M , Michels J , Poppitz W , Günther W & Fritsche W (1997) Structure of a laccase-mediated product of coupling of 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene to guaiacol, a model for coupling of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene metabolites to a humic organic soil matrix. Appl Environ Microbiol 63: 25602565.
  • Dawley RM & Flurkey WH (1993) Differentiation of tyrosinase and laccase using 4-hexyl-resorcinol, a tyrosinase inhibitor. Phytochem 33: 281284.
  • Carvalho MEA , Monteiro MC & Sant'Anna GL (1999) Laccase from Trametes versicolor - stability at temperature and alkaline conditions and its effect on biobleaching of hardwood kraft pulp. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 77: 723733.
  • Souza CGM & Peralta RM (2003) Purification and characterization of the main laccase produced by the white-rot fungus Pleurotus pulmonarius on wheat bran solid state medium. J Basic Microbiol 43: 278286.
  • Vries OMH , Kooistra WHCF & Wessels GH (1986) Formation of an extracellular laccase by Schizophyllum commune dikaryon. J Gen Microbiol 132: 28172826.
  • DeForest JL , Zak DR , Pregitzer KS & Burton AJ (2004) Atmospheric nitrate deposition, microbial community composition, and enzyme activity in northern hardwood forests. Soil Sci Soc Amer J 68: 132138.
  • DeForest JL , Zak DR , Pregitzer KS & Burton AJ (2004) Atmospheric nitrate deposition and the microbial degradation of cellobiose and vanillin in a northern hardwood forest. Soil Biol Biochem 36: 965971.
  • Dec J & Bollag JM (2000) Phenoloxidase-mediated interactions of phenols and anilines with humic materials. J Environ Qual 29: 665676.
  • Dedeyan B , Klonowska A , Tagger S , Tron T , Iacazio G , Gil G & Le Petit J (2000) Biochemical and molecular characterization of a laccase from Marasmius quercophilus. Appl Environ Microbiol 66: 925929.
  • Nardo C , Cinquegrana A , Papa S , Fuggi A & Fioretto A (2004) Laccase and peroxidase isoenzymes during leaf litter decomposition of Quercus ilex in a Mediterranean ecosystem. Soil Biol Biochem 36: 15391544.
  • Dittmer JK , Patel NJ , Dhawale SW & Dhawale SS (1997) Production of multiple laccase isoforms by Phanerochaete chrysosporium grown under nutrient sufficiency. FEMS Microbiol Lett 149: 6570.
  • Dong JL & Zhang YZ (2004) Purification and characterization of two laccase isoenzymes from a ligninolytic fungus Trametes gallica. Prep Biochem Biotechnol 34: 179194.
  • Ducros V , Brzozowski AM , Wilson KS , Brown SH , Ostergaard P , Schneider P , Yaver DS , Pedersen AH & Davies GJ (1998) Crystal structure of the type-2 Cu depleted laccase from Coprinus cinereus at 2.2 angstrom resolution. Nat Struct Biol 5: 310316.
  • Durán N & Esposito E (2000) Potential applications of oxidative enzymes and phenoloxidase-like compounds in wastewater and soil treatment: a review. Appl Catal B: Environ 28: 8399.
  • Durán N , Rosa MA , Dannibale A & Gianfreda L (2002) Applications of laccases and tyrosinases (phenoloxidases) immobilized on different supports: a review. Enzyme Microb Technol 31: 907931.
  • Durrens P (1981) The phenoloxidases of the ascomycete Podospora anserina: the three forms of the major laccase activity. Arch Microbiol 130: 121124.
  • D'Annibale A , Celletti D , Felici M , Dimattia E & Giovannozzi-Sermanni G (1996) Substrate specificity of laccase from Lentinus edodes. Acta Biotechnol 16: 257270.
  • D'Annibale A , Stazi SR , Vinciguerra V & Sermanni GG (2000) Oxirane-immobilized Lentinula edodes laccase: stability and phenolics removal efficiency in olive mill wastewater. J Biotechnol 77: 265273.
  • D'Souza TM , Boominathan K & Reddy CA (1996) Isolation of laccase gene-specific sequences from white rot and brown rot fungi by PCR. Appl Environ Microbiol 62: 37393744.
  • Edens WA , Goins TQ , Dooley D & Henson JM (1999) Purification and characterization of a secreted laccase of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici. Appl Environ Microbiol 65: 30713074.
  • Eggen T (1999) Application of fungal substrate from commercial mushroom production –Pleuorotus ostreatus– for bioremediation of creosote contaminated soil. Int Biodeter Biodegrad 44: 117126.
  • Eggert C , Temp U , Dean JFD & Eriksson KEL (1995) Laccase-mediated formation of the phenoxazinone derivative, cinnabarinic acid. FEBS Lett 376: 202206.
  • Eggert C , Temp U , Dean JFD & Eriksson KEL (1996) A fungal metabolite mediates degradation of non-phenolic lignin structures and synthetic lignin by laccase. FEBS Lett 391: 144148.
  • Eggert C , Temp U & Eriksson KEL (1996) The ligninolytic system of the white rot fungus Pycnoporus cinnabarinus: purification and characterization of the laccase. Appl Environ Microbiol 62: 11511158.
  • Eller LR , Henderson RR , Slomczynski DJ & Eriksson KEL (1998) Isolation and characterization of laccase isozymes from Ganoderma tsugae. Abstr Pap Am Chem Soc 215: 401.
  • Enguita FJ , Marcal D , Martins LO , Grenha R , Henriques AO , Lindley PF & Carrondo MA (2004) Substrate and dioxygen binding to the endospore coat laccase from Bacillus subtilis. J Biol Chem 279: 2347223476.
  • Enguita FJ , Martins LO , Henriques AO & Carrondo MA (2003) Crystal structure of a bacterial endospore coat component – a laccase with enhanced thermostability properties. J Biol Chem 278: 1941619425.
  • Fabbrini M , Galli C & Gentili P (2002) Comparing the catalytic efficiency of some mediators of laccase. J Mol Catal B 16: 231240.
  • Fahraeus G (1961) Monophenolase and polyphenolase activity of fungal laccase. Biochim Biophys Acta 54: 192194.
  • Fahraeus G & Ljunggren H (1961) Substrate specificity of a purified fungal laccase. Biochim Biophys Acta 46: 2232.
  • Fakoussa RM & Frost PJ (1999) In vivo-decolorization of coal-derived humic acids by laccase-excreting fungus Trametes versicolor. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 52: 6065.
  • Farnet AM , Criquet S , Cigna M , Gil G & Ferre E (2004) Purification of a laccase from Marasmius quercophilus induced with ferulic acid: reactivity towards natural and xenobiotic aromatic compounds. Enzyme Microb Technol 34: 549554.
  • Farnet AM , Criquet S , Pocachard E , Gil G & Ferre E (2002) Purification of a new isoform of laccase from a Marasmius quercophilus strain isolated from a cork oak litter (Quercus suber L.). Mycologia 94: 735740.
  • Farnet AM , Criquet S , Tagger S , Gil G & Le Petit J (2000) Purification, partial characterization, and reactivity with aromatic compounds of two laccases from Marasmius quercophilus strain 17. Can J Microbiol 46: 189194.
  • Farnet AM , Tagger S & Le Petit J (1999) Effects of copper and aromatic inducers on the laccases of the white-rot fungus Marasmius quercophilus. C R Acad Sci Series III 322: 499503.
  • Fioretto A , Papa S , Curcio E , Sorrentino G & Fuggi A (2000) Enzyme dynamics on decomposing leaf litter of Cistus incanus and Myrtus communis in a Mediterranean ecosystem. Soil Biol Biochem 32: 18471855.
  • Freeman C , Ostle NJ , Fenner N & Kang H (2004) A regulatory role for phenol oxidase during decomposition in peatlands. Soil Biol Biochem 36: 16631667.
  • Freitag M & Morrell JJ (1992) Changes in selected enzyme activities during growth of pure and mixed cultures of the white-rot decay fungus Trametes versicolor and the potential biocontrol fungus Trichoderma harzianum. Can J Microbiol 38: 317323.
  • Froehner SC & Eriksson KEL (1974) Purification and properties of Neurospora crassa laccase. J Bacteriol 120: 458465.
  • Fukushima Y & Kirk TK (1995) Laccase component of the Ceriporiopsis subvemispora lignin degrading system. Appl Environ Microbiol 61: 872876.
  • Galhaup C , Goller S , Peterbauer CK , Strauss J & Haltrich D (2002) Characterization of the major laccase isoenzyme from Trametes pubescens and regulation of its synthesis by metal ions. Microbiology 148: 21592169.
  • Galhaup C & Haltrich D (2001) Enhanced formation of laccase activity by the white-rot fungus Trametes pubescens in the presence of copper. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 56: 22532.
  • Gallo M , Amonette R , Lauber C , Sinsabaugh RL & Zak DR (2004) Microbial community structure and oxidative enzyme activity in nitrogen-amended north temperate forest soils. Microb Ecol 48: 218229.
  • Garavaglia S , Cambria MT , Miglio M , Ragusa S , Lacobazzi V , Palmieri F , D'Ambrosio C , Scaloni A & Rizzi M (2004) The structure of Rigidoporus lignosus laccase containing a full complement of copper ions, reveals an asymmetrical arrangement for the T3 copper pair. J Mol Biol 342: 15191531.
  • Garzillo AMV , Colao MC , Caruso C , Caporale C , Celletti D & Buonocore V (1998) Laccase from the white-rot fungus Trametes trogii. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 49: 545551.
  • Geiger JP , Rio B , Nandris D & Nicole M (1986) Laccases of Rigidoporus lignosus and Phellinus noxius. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 12: 121133.
  • Ghosh A , Frankland JC , Thurston CF & Robinson CH (2003) Enzyme production by Mycena galopus mycelium in artificial media and in Picea sitchensis F-1 horizon needle litter. Mycol Res 107: 9961008.
  • Ghosh D & Mukherjee R (1998) Modeling tyrosinase monooxygenase activity. Spectroscopic and magnetic investigations of products due to reactions between copper(I) complexes of xylyl-based dinucleating ligands and dioxygen: aromatic ring hydroxylation and irreversible oxidation products. Inorg Chem 37: 65976605.
  • Giardina P , Palmieri G , Scaloni A , Fontanella B , Faraco V , Cennamo G & Sannia G (1999) Protein and gene structure of a blue laccase from Pleurotus ostreatus. Biochem J 341: 655663.
  • Gigi O , Marbach I & Mayer AM (1981) Properties of gallic acid-induced extracellular laccase of Botrytis cinerea. Phytochemistry 20: 12111213.
  • Givaudan A , Effosse A , Faure D , Potier P , Bouillant ML & Bally R (2004) Polyphenol oxidase in Azospirillum lipoferum isolated from rice rhizosphere: evidence for a laccase in non-motile strains of Azospirillum lipoferum. FEMS Microbiol Lett 108: 205210.
  • Gramss G , Günther T & Fritsche W (1998) Spot tests for oxidative enzymes in ectomycorrhizal, wood-, and litter decaying fungi. Mycol Res 102: 6772.
  • Gramss G , Kirsche B , Voigt KD , Günther T & Fritsche W (1999) Conversion rates of five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in liquid cultures of fifty-eight fungi and the concomitant production of oxidative enzymes. Mycol Res 103: 10091018.
  • Gramss G , Voigt KD & Bergmann H (2005) Factors influencing water solubility and plant availability of mineral compounds in the tripartite fairy rings of Marasmius oreades (BOLT.: FR.) FR. J Basic Microbiol 45: 4154.
  • Günther H , Perner B & Gramss G (1998) Activities of phenol oxidizing enzymes of ectomycorrhizal fungi in axenic culture and in symbiosis with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). J Basic Microbiol 38: 197206.
  • Hakala TK , Lundell T , Galkin S , Maijala P , Kalkkinen N & Hatakka A (2005) Manganese peroxidases, laccases and oxalic acid from the selective white-rot fungus Physisporinus rivulosus grown on spruce wood chips. Enzyme Microb Technol 36: 461468.
  • Hakulinen N , Kiiskinen LL , Kruus K , Saloheimo M , Paananen A , Koivula A & Rouvinen J (2002) Crystal structure of a laccase from Melanocarpus albomyces with an intact trinuclear copper site. Nature Struct Biol 9: 601605.
  • Harkin JM , Larsen MJ & Obst JR (1974) Use of syringaldazine for detection of laccase in sporophores of wood rotting fungi. Mycologia 66: 469476.
  • Hatakka A (2001) Biodegradation of lignin. Lignin, Humic Substances and Coal (HofrichterM & SteinbüchelA , eds), pp. 129179. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany.
  • Heinzkill M , Bech L , Halkier T , Schneider P & Anke T (1998) Characterization of laccases and peroxidases from wood-rotting fungi (family Coprinaceae). Appl Environ Microbiol 64: 16011606.
  • Hendel B & Marxsen J (2000) Extracellular enzyme activity associated with degradation of beech wood in a Central European stream. Int Rev Hydrobiol 85: 95105.
  • Holker U , Dohse J & Hofer M (2002) Extracellular laccases in ascomycetes Trichoderma atroviride and Trichoderma harzianum. Folia Microbiol 47: 423427.
  • Hoopes JT & Dean JFD (2004) Ferroxidase activity in a laccase-like multicopper oxidase from Liriodendron tulipifera. Plant Physiol Biochem 42: 2733.
  • Höfer C & Schlosser D (1999) Novel enzymatic oxidation of Mn2+ to Mn3+ catalyzed by a fungal laccase. FEBS Lett 451: 186190.
  • Hublik G & Schinner F (2000) Characterization and immobilization of the laccase from Pleurotus ostreatus and its use for the continuous elimination of phenolic pollutants. Enzyme Microb Technol 27: 330336.
  • Iakovlev A & Stenlid J (2000) Spatiotemporal patterns of laccase activity in interacting mycelia of wood-decaying basidiomycete fungi. Microb Ecol 39: 236245.
  • Ikeda R , Sugita T , Jacobson ES & Shinoda T (2003) Effects of melanin upon susceptibility of Cryptococcus to antifungals. Microbiol Immunol 47: 271277.
  • Ishigami T , Hirose Y & Yamada Y (1998) Characterization of polyphenol oxidase from Chaetomium thermophile, a thermophilic fungus. J Gen Appl Microbiol 34: 401407.
  • Itoh K , Fujita M , Kumano K , Suyama K & Yamamoto H (2000) Phenolic acids affect transformations of chlorophenols by a Coriolus versicolor laccase. Soil Biol Biochem 32: 8591.
  • Iwasaki H , Matsubara T & Mori T (1967) A fungal laccase, its properties and reconstitution from its protein and copper. J Biochem 61: 814816.
  • Iyer G & Chattoo BB (2003) Purification and characterization of laccase from the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe grisea. FEMS Microbiol Lett 227: 121126.
  • Jimenez M , Gonzalez AE , Martinez MJ , Martinez AT & Dále BE (1991) Screening of yeasts isolated from decayed wood for lignocellulose degrading enzyme activities. Mycol Res 95: 12991302.
  • Johannes C & Majcherczyk A (2000) Laccase activity tests and laccase inhibitors. J Biotechnol 78: 193199.
  • Johannes C & Majcherczyk A (2000) Natural mediators in the oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by laccase mediator systems. Appl Environ Microbiol 66: 524528.
  • Johannes C , Majcherczyk A & Hüttermann A (1996) Degradation of anthracene by laccase of Trametes versicolor in the presence of different mediator compounds. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 46: 313317.
  • Johannes C , Majcherczyk A & Hüttermann A (1998) Oxidation of acenaphthene and acenaphthylene by laccase of Trametes versicolor in a laccase-mediator system. J Biotechnol 61: 151156.
  • Jolivalt C , Brenon S , Caminade E , Mougin C & Pontie M (2000) Immobilization of laccase from Trametes versicolor on a modified PVDF microfiltration membrane: characterization of the grafted support and application in removing a phenylurea pesticide in wastewater. J Membr Sci 180: 103113.
  • Junghanns C , Moeder M , Krauss G , Martin C & Schlosser D (2005) Degradation of the xenoestrogen nonylphenol by aquatic fungi and their laccases. Microbiology 151: 4557.
  • Kang KH , Dec J , Park H & Bollag JM (2002) Transformation of the fungicide cyprodinil by a laccase of Trametes villosa in the presence of phenolic mediators and humic acid. Water Res 36: 49074915.
  • Kanunfre CC & Zancan GT (1998) Physiology of exolaccase production by Thelephora terrestris. FEMS Microbiol Lett 161: 151156.
  • Katase T & Bollag JM (1991) Transformation of trans-4-hydroxycinnamic acid by a laccase of the fungus Trametes versicolor– its significance in humification. Soil Sci 151: 291296.
  • Keum YS & Li QX (2004) Copper dissociation as a mechanism of fungal laccase denaturation by humic acid. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 64: 588592.
  • Kiiskinen LL , Viikari L & Kruus K (2002) Purification and characterisation of a novel laccase from the ascomycete Melanocarpus albomyces. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 59: 198204.
  • Kim Y , Cho NS , Eom TJ & Shin W (2002) Purification and characterization of a laccase from Cerrena unicolor and its reactivity in lignin degradation. Bull Korean Chem Soc 23: 985989.
  • Kirk TK & Farrell RL (1987) Enzymatic “combustion”: the microbial degradation of lignin. Annu Rev Microbiol 41: 465505.
  • Kluczek-Turpeinen B , Steffen KT , Tuomela M , Hatakka A & Hofrichter M (2005) Modification of humic acids by the compost-dwelling deuteromycete Paecilomyces inflatus. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 66: 443449.
  • Kluczek-Turpeinen B , Tuomela M , Hatakka A & Hofrichter M (2003) Lignin degradation in a compost environment by the deuteromycete Paecilomyces inflatus. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 61: 374379.
  • Ko EM , Leem YE & Choi HT (2001) Purification and characterization of laccase isozymes from the white-rot basidiomycete Ganoderma lucidum. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 57: 98102.
  • Kofujita H , Ohta T , Asada Y & Kuwahara M (1991) Purification and characterization of laccase from Lentinus edodes. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 37: 562569.
  • Koroleva OV , Yavmetdinov IS , Shleev SV , Stepanova EV & Gavrilova VP (2001) Isolation and study of some properties of laccase from the Basidiomycetes Cerrena maxima. Biochemistry (Mosc) 66: 618622.
  • Koroljova OV , Stepanova EV , Gavrilova VP , Biniukov VI , Jaropolov AI , Varfolomeyev SD , Scheller F , Makower A & Otto A (1999) Laccase of Coriolus zonatus– Isolation, purification, and some physicochemical properties. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 76: 115127.
  • Koroljova-Skorobogat'ko OV , Stepanova EV , Gavrilova VP , Morozova OV , Lubimova NV , Dzchafarova AN , Jaropolov AI & Makower A (1998) Purification and characterization of the constitutive form of laccase from the basidiomycete Coriolus hirsutus and effect of inducers on laccase synthesis. Biotechnol Appl Biochem 28: 4754.
  • Kottermann MJJ , Rietberg HJ , Hage A & Field JA (1998) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon oxidation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 in the presence of nonionic surfactants. Biotechnol Bioeng 57: 220227.
  • Lalitha Kumari H & Sirsi M (1972) Purification and properties of laccase from Ganoderma lucidum. Arch Microbiol 84: 350357.
  • Lang E , Eller G & Zadrazil F (1997) Lignocellulose decomposition and production of ligninolytic enzymes during interaction of white rot fungi with soil microorganisms. Microb Ecol 34: 110.
  • Lang E , Nerud F & Zadrazil F (1998) Production of ligninolytic enzymes by Pleurotus sp. and Dichomitus squalens in soil and lignocellulose substrate as influenced by soil microorganisms. FEMS Microbiol Lett 167: 239244.
  • Larrondo LF , Salas L , Melo F , Vicuna R & Cullen D (2003) A novel extracellular multicopper oxidase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium with ferroxidase activity. Appl Environ Microbiol 69: 62576263.
  • Lau KL , Tsang YY & Chiu SW (2003) Use of spent mushroom compost to bioremediate PAH-contaminated samples. Chemosphere 52: 15391546.
  • Law WM , Lau WN , Lo KL , Wai LM & Chiu SW (2003) Removal of biocide pentachlorophenol in water system by the spent mushroom compost of Pleurotus pulmonarius. Chemosphere 52: 15311537.
  • Lee YJ & Shin KS (1999) Purification and properties of laccase of the white-rot basidiomycete Coriolus hirsutus. J Microbiol 37: 148153.
  • Lee KH , Wi SG , Singh AP & Kim YS (2004) Micromorphological characteristics of decayed wood and laccase produced by the brown-rot fungus Coniophora puteana. J Wood Sci 50: 281284.
  • Leitner C , Hess J , Galhaup C , Ludwig R , Nidetzky B , Kulbe KD & Haltrich D (2002) Purification and characterization of a laccase from the white-rot fungus Trametes multicolor. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 98: 497507.
  • Leonowicz A , Cho NS , Luterek J , Wilkolazka A , Wojtaswasilewska M , Matuszewska A , Hofrichter M , Wesenberg D & Rogalski J (2001) Fungal laccase: properties and activity on lignin. J Basic Microbiol 41: 185227.
  • Leonowicz A , Edgehill RU & Bollag JM (1984) The effect of pH on the transformation of syringic and vanillic acids by the laccases of Rhizoctonia praticola and Trametes versicolor. Arch Microbiol 137: 8996.
  • Leonowicz A & Malinowska M (1982) Purification of the constitutive and inducible forms of laccase of the fungus Pholiota mutabilis by affinity chromatography. Acta Biochim Polon 29: 219226.
  • Leontievsky AA , Myasoedova NM , Baskunov BP , Golovleva LA , Bucke C & Evans CS (2001) Transformation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol by free and immobilized fungal laccase. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 57: 8591.
  • Leontievsky A , Myasoedova N , Pozdnyakova N & Golovleva L (1997) “Yellow” laccase of Panus tigrinus oxidizes non-phenolic substrates without electron-transfer mediators. FEBS Lett 413: 446448.
  • Leontievsky AA , Vares T , Lankinen P , et al. (1997) Blue and yellow laccases of ligninolytic fungi. FEMS Microbiol Lett 156: 914.
  • Liers C , Ullrich R , Steffen KT , Hatakka A & Hofrichter M (2005) Mineralization of 14C-labelled lignin and extracellular enzyme activities of the wood-colonizing ascomycetes Xylaria hypoxylon and Xylaria polymorpha. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. DOI 10.1007/s00253-005-0010-1. (in press) .
  • Liu L , Dean JFD , Friedman WE & Eriksson KEL (1994) Laccase-like phenoloxidase is correlated with lignin biosynthesis in Zinnia elegans stem tissue. Plant J 6: 213224.
  • Lo SC , Ho YS & Buswell JA (2001) Effect of phenolic monomers on the production of laccases by the edible mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju, and partial characterization of a major laccase component. Mycologia 93: 413421.
  • Luis P , Walther G , Kellner H , Martin F & Buscot F (2004) Diversity of laccase genes from basidiomycetes in a forest soil. Soil Biol Biochem 36: 10251036.
  • Lyons JI , Newell SY , Buchan A & Moran MA (2003) Diversity of ascomycete laccase gene sequences in a southeastern US salt marsh. Microb Ecol 45: 270281.
  • Lund M , Eriksson M & Felby C (2003) Reactivity of a fungal laccase towards lignin in softwood kraft pulp. Holzforschung 57: 2126.
  • Machonkin TE , Quintanar L , Palmer AE , Hassett R , Severance S , Kosman DJ & Solomon EI (2001) Spectroscopy and reactivity of the type 1 copper site in Fet3p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: correlation of structure with reactivity in the multicopper oxidases. J Am Chem Soc 123: 55075517.
  • Majcherczyk A & Johannes C (2000) Radical mediated indirect oxidation of a PEG-coupled polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) model compound by fungal laccase. Biochim Biophys Acta 1474: 157162.
  • Majcherczyk A , Johannes C & Hüttermann A (1998) Oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) by laccase of Trametes versicolor. Enzyme Microb Technol 22: 335341.
  • Makkar RS , Tsuneda A , Tokuyasu K & Mori Y (2001) Lentinula edodes produces a multicomponent protein complex containing manganese (II)-dependent peroxidase, laccase and beta-glucosidase. FEMS Microbiol Lett 200: 175179.
  • Maltseva OV , Niku-Paavola ML , Leontievsky AA , Myasoedova NM & Golovleva LA (1991) Ligninolytic enzymes of the white rot fungus Panus tigrinus. Biotechnol Appl Biochem 13: 291302.
  • Marbach I , Harel E & Mayer AM (1984) Molecular properties of extracellular Botrytis cinerea laccase. Phytochemistry 23: 27132717.
  • Martinez D , Larrondo LF , Putnam N , et al. (2004) Genome sequence of the lignocellulose degrading fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium strain RP78. Nature Biotechnol 22: 695700.
  • Martins LO , Soares CM , Pereira MM , Teixeira M , Costa T , Jones GH & Henriques AO (2002) Molecular and biochemical characterization of a highly stable bacterial laccase that occurs as a structural component of the Bacillus subtilis endospore coat. J Biol Chem 277: 1884918859.
  • Matsubara T & Iwasaki H (1972) Occurrence of laccase and tyrosinase in fungi of Agaricales and comparative study of laccase from Russula delica and Russula pseudodelica. Bot Mag Tokyo 85: 71.
  • Mayer AM (1987) Polyphenol oxidases in plants – recent progress. Phytochemistry 26: 1120.
  • Mayer AM & Staples RC (2002) Laccase: new functions for an old enzyme. Phytochemistry 60: 551565.
  • Messerschmidt A (1997) Multi-Copper Oxidases. World Scientific, Singapore.
  • Min KL , Kim YH , Kim YW , Jung HS & Hah YC (2001) Characterization of a novel laccase produced by the wood-rotting fungus Phellinus ribis. Arch Biochem Biophys 392: 279286.
  • Molitoris HP & Esser K (1970) The phenoloxidases of the ascomycete Podospora anserine. V. Properties of laccase I after further purification. Arch Mikrobiol 72: 267296.
  • Monteiro MC & de Carvalho MEA (1998) Pulp bleaching using laccase from Trametes versicolor under high temperature and alkaline conditions. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 70: 983993.
  • Munoz C , Guillen F , Martinez AT & Martinez MJ (1997) Induction and characterization of laccase in the ligninolytic fungus Pleurotus eryngii. Curr Microbiol 34: 15.
  • Munoz C , Guillen F , Martinez AT & Martinez MJ (1997) Laccase isoenzymes of Pleurotus eryngii: characterization, catalytic properties, and participation in activation of molecular oxygen and Mn2+ oxidation. Appl Environ Microbiol 63: 21662174.
  • Nagai M , Sato T , Watanabe H , Saito K , Kawata M & Enei H (2002) Purification and characterization of an extracellular laccase from the edible mushroom Lentinula edodes, and decolorization of chemically different dyes. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 60: 327335.
  • Nannipieri P & Bollag JM (1991) Use of enzymes to detoxify pesticide-contaminated soils and waters. J Environ Qual 20: 510517.
  • Nannipieri P , Gelsomino A & Felici M (1991) Method to determine guaiacol oxidase activity in soil. Soil Sci Soc Am J 55: 13471352.
  • Neufeld HA , Latterell FM , Green LF & Weintraub RL (1958) Oxidation of meta-polyhydroxyphenols by enzymes from Piricularia oryzae and Polyporus versicolor. Arch Biochem 76: 317327.
  • Ng TB & Wang HX (2004) A homodimeric laccase with unique characteristics from the yellow mushroom Cantharellus cibarius. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 313: 3741.
  • Nicole M , Chamberland H , Geiger JP , Lecours N , Valero J , Rio B & Ouellette GB (1992) Immunocytochemical localization of laccase L1 in wood decayed by Rigidoporus lignosus. Appl Environ Microbiol 58: 17271739.
  • Nicole M , Chamberland H , Rioux D , Lecours N , Rio B , Geiger JP & Ouellette GB (1993) A cytochemical study of extracellular sheaths associated with Rigidoporus lignosus during wood decay. Appl Environ Microbiol 59: 25782588.
  • Nishizawa Y , Nakabayashi K & Shinagawa E (1995) Purification and characterization of laccase from white-rot fungus Trametes sanguinea M85-2. J Ferment Bioeng 80: 9193.
  • Nyanhongo GS , Gomes J , Gübitz GM , Zvauya R , Read J & Steiner W 2002 Decolorization of textile dyes by laccases from a newly isolated strain of Trametes modesta. Water Res 36: 14491456.
  • Oda Y , Adachi K , Aita I , Ito M , Aso Y & Igarashi H (1991) Purification and properties of laccase excreted by Pycnoporus coccineus. Agric Biol Chem 55: 13931395.
  • Paice MG , Bourbonnais R , Reid ID , Archibald FS & Jurasek L (1995) Oxidative bleaching enzymes – a review. J Pulp Paper Sci 21: 280284.
  • Palmieri G , Cennamo G , Faraco V , Amoresano A , Sannia G & Giardina P (2003) Atypical laccase isoenzymes from copper supplemented Pleurotus ostreatus cultures. Enzyme Microb Technol 33: 220230.
  • Palmieri G , Giardina P , Bianco C , Fontanella B & Sannia G (2000) Copper induction of laccase isoenzymes in the ligninolytic fungus Pleurotus ostreatus. Appl Environ Microbiol 66: 920924.
  • Palmieri G , Giardina P , Bianco C , Scaloni A , Capasso A & Sannia G (1997) A novel white laccase from Pleurotus ostreatus. J Biol Chem 272: 3130131307.
  • Palmieri G , Giardina P , Marzullo L , Desiderio B , Nitti G , Cannio R & Sannia G (1993) Stability and activity of a phenol oxidase from the ligninolytic fungus Pleurotus ostreatus. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 39: 632636.
  • Palonen H , Saloheimo M , Viikari L & Kruus K (2003) Purification, characterization and sequence analysis of a laccase from the ascomycete Mauginiella sp. Enzyme Microb Technol 33: 854862.
  • Peralta-Zamora P , Pereira CM , Tiburtius ERL , Moraes SG , Rosa MA , Minussi RC & Durán N (2003) Decolorization of reactive dyes by immobilized laccase. Appl Catal B-Environ 42: 131144.
  • Perez J , Martinez J & de la Rubia T (1996) Purification and partial characterization of a laccase from the white rot fungus Phanerochaete flavido-alba. Appl Environ Microbiol 62: 42634267.
  • Perie FH , Reddy GVB , Blackburn NJ & Gold MH (1998) Purification and characterization of laccases from the white-rot basidiomycete Dichomitus squalens. Arch Biochem Biophys 353: 349355.
  • Perry CR , Matcham SE , Wood DA & Thurston CF (1993) The structure of laccase protein and its synthesis by the commercial mushroom Agaricus bisporus. J Gen Microbiol 139: 171178.
  • Petroski RJ , Peczynska-Czoch W & Rosazza JP (1980) Analysis, production, and isolation of an extracellular laccase from Polyporus anceps. Appl Environ Microbiol 40: 10031006.
  • Petter R , Kang BS , Boekhout T , Davis BJ & Kwon-Chung KJ (2001) A survey of heterobasidiomycetous yeasts for the presence of the genes homologous to virulence factors of Filobasidiella neoformans, CNLAC1 and CAP59. Microbiology 147: 20292036.
  • Pickard M , Roman AR , Tinoco R & Vazquez-Duhalt R (1999) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism by white rot fungi and oxidation by Coriolopsis gallica UAMH 8260 laccase. Appl Environ Microbiol 65: 38053809.
  • Pind A , Freeman C & Lock MA (1994) Enzymatic degradation of phenolic materials in peatlands – measurement of phenol oxidase activity. Plant Soil 159: 227231.
  • Piontek K , Antorini M & Choinowski T (2002) Crystal structure of a laccase from the fungus Trametes versicolor at 1.90-angstrom resolution containing a full complement of coppers. J Biol Chem 277: 3766337669.
  • Pointing SB , Pelling AL , Smith GJD , Hyde KD & Reddy CA (2005) Screening of basidiomycetes and xylariaceous fungi for lignin peroxidase and laccase gene-specific sequences. Mycol Res 109: 115124.
  • Pozdnyakova NN , Rodakiewicz-Nowak J & Turkovskaya OV (2004) Catalytic properties of yellow laccase from Pleurotus ostreatus D1. J Mol Catal B 30: 1924.
  • Ranocha P , Chabannes M , Chamayou S , Danoun S , Jauneau A , Boudet AM & Goffner D (2002) Laccase down-regulation causes alterations in phenolic metabolism and cell wall structure in poplar. Plant Physiol 129: 111.
  • Rehman AU & Thurston CF (1992) Purification of laccase-I from Armillaria mellea. J Gen Microbiol 138: 12511257.
  • Reid ID & Paice MG (1994) Biological bleaching of kraft pulps by white-rot fungi and their enzymes. FEMS Microbiol Rev 13: 369376.
  • Reinhammar B & Malmstrom BG (1981) Blue copper-containing oxidases. Copper Proteins. Metal Ions in Biology, Vol. 3 (SpiroTG , ed.), pp. 109149. Wiley, New York, USA.
  • Robles A , Lucas R , Martinez-Canamero M , Ben Omar N , Perez R & Galvez A (2002) Characterisation of laccase activity produced by the hyphomycete Chalara (syn. Thielavopsis) paradoxa CH32. Enzyme Microb Technol 31: 516522.
  • Rodriguez A , Falcon MA , Carnicero A , Perestelo F , Delafuente G & Trojanowski J (1996) Laccase activities of Penicillium chrysogenum in relation to lignin degradation. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 45: 399403.
  • Rodriguez E , Pickard MA & Vazquez-Duhalt R (1999) Industrial dye decolorization by laccases from ligninolytic fungi. Curr Microbiol 38: 2732.
  • Rogalski J , Dawidowicz AL & Leonowicz A (1990) Purification and immobilization of the inducible form of extracellular laccase of the fungus Trametes versicolor. Acta Biotechnol 10: 261269.
  • Rogalski J , Wojtas-Wasilewska M , Apalovic R & Leonowicz A (1991) Affinity chromatography as a rapid and convenient method for purification of fungal laccases. Biotechnol Bioeng 37: 770777.
  • Roper JC , Sarkar JM , Dec J & Bollag JM (1995) Enhanced enzymatic removal of chlorophenols in the presence of co-substrates. Water Res 29: 27202724.
  • Rosconi F , Fraguas LF , Martínez-Drets G & Castro-Sowinski S (2005) Purification and characterization of a periplasmic laccase produced by Sinorhizobium meliloti. Enzyme Microb Technol 36: 800807.
  • Rosenbrock P , Buscot F & Munch JC (1995) Fungal succession and changes in the fungal degradation potential during the initial stage of litter decomposition in a black alder Forest [Alnus glutinosa (L) Gaertn]. Eur J Soil Biol 31: 111.
  • Royarcand L & Archibald FS (1991) Direct dechlorination of chlorophenolic compounds by laccases from Trametes (Coriolus) versicolor. Enzyme Microb Technol 13: 194203.
  • Ryan S , Schnitzhofer W , Tzanov T , Cavaco-Paulo A & Gubitz GM (2003) An acid-stable laccase from Sclerotium rolfsii with potential for wool dye decolorization. Enzyme Microb Technol 33: 766774.
  • Saiya-Cork KR , Sinsabaugh RL & Zak DR (2002) The effects of long term nitrogen deposition on extracellular enzyme activity in an Acer saccharum forest soil. Soil Biol Biochem 34: 13091315.
  • Salas C , Lobos S , Larrain J , Salas L , Cullen D & Vicuna R (1995) Properties of laccase isoenzymes produced by the basidiomycete Ceriporiopsis subvermispora. Biotechnol Appl Biochem 21: 323333.
  • Sannia G , Giardina P , Luna M , Rossi M & Buonocore V (1986) Laccase from Pleurotus ostreatus. Biotechnol Lett 8: 797800.
  • Saparrat MCN , Guillen F , Arambarri AM , Martinez AT & Martinez MJ (2002) Induction, isolation, and characterization of two laccases from the white rot basidiomycete Coriolopsis rigida. Appl Environ Microbiol 68: 15341540.
  • Sassoon J & Mooibroek H (2001) A system of categorizing enzyme-cell wall associations in Agaricus bisporus, using operational criteria. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 56: 613622.
  • Savoie JM (2001) Variability in brown line formation and extracellular laccase production during interaction between white-rot basidiomycetes and Trichoderma harzianum biotype Th2. Mycologia 93: 243248.
  • Savoie JM , Mata G & Billette C (1998) Extracellular laccase production during hyphal interactions between Trichoderma sp and Shiitake, Lentinula edodes. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 49: 589593.
  • Scháněl L & Esser K (1971) The phenoloxidases of the ascomycete Podospora anserina. VIII. Substrate specificity of laccases with different molecular structure. Arch Mikrobiol 77: 111117.
  • Scheel T , Hofer M , Ludwig S & Holker U (2000) Differential expression of manganese peroxidase and laccase in white-rot fungi in the presence of manganese or aromatic compounds. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 54: 686691.
  • Scherer M & Fischer R (1998) Purification and characterization of laccase II of Aspergillus nidulans. Arch Microbiol 170: 7884.
  • Schliephake K , Mainwaring DE , Lonergan GT , Jones IK & Baker WL (2000) Transformation and degradation of the disazo dye Chicago Sky Blue by a purified laccase from Pycnoporus cinnabarinus. Enzyme Microb Technol 27: 100107.
  • Schlosser D , Grey R & Fritsche W (1997) Patterns of ligninolytic enzymes in T. versicolor. Distribution of extra- and intracellular enzyme activities during cultivation on glucose, wheat straw and beech wood. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 47: 412418.
  • Schlosser D & Höfer C (2002) Laccase-catalyzed oxidation of Mn2+ in the presence of natural Mn3+ chelators as a novel source of extracellular H2O2 production and its impact on manganese peroxidase. Appl Environ Microbiol 68: 35143521.
  • Schneider P , Caspersen MB , Mondorf K , Halkier T , Skov LK , Ostergaard PR , Brown KM , Brown SH & Xu F (1999) Characterization of a Coprinus cinereus laccase. Enzyme Microb Technol 25: 502508.
  • Schultz A , Jonas U , Hammer E & Schauer F (2001) Dehalogenation of chlorinated hydroxybiphenyls by fungal laccase. Appl Environ Microbiol 67: 43774381.
  • Sealey J , Ragauskas AJ & Elder TJ (1999) Investigations into laccase-mediator delignification of kraft pulps. Holzforschung 53: 498502.
  • Sethuraman A , Akin DE & Eriksson KEL (1999) Production of ligninolytic enzymes and synthetic lignin mineralization by the bird's nest fungus Cyathus stercoreus. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 52: 689697.
  • Shin KS & Lee YJ (2000) Purification and characterization of a new member of the laccase family from the white-rot basidiomycete Coriolus hirsutus. Arch Biochem Biophys 384: 109115.
  • Shleev SV , Morozova O , Nikitina O , Gorshina ES , Rusinova T , Serezhenkov VA , Burbaev DS , Gazaryan IG & Yaropolov AI (2004) Comparison of physico-chemical characteristics of four laccases from different basidiomycetes. Biochimie 86: 693703.
  • Sigoillot C , Record E , Belle V , Robert JL , Levasseur A , Punt PJ , van den Hondel CAMJ , Fournel A , Sigoillot JC & Asther M (2004) Natural and recombinant fungal laccases for paper pulp bleaching. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 64: 346352.
  • Slomczynski D , Nakas JP & Tanenbaum SW (1995) Production and characterization of laccase from Botrytis cinerea 61–34. Appl Environ Microbiol 61: 907912.
  • Smirnov SA , Koroleva OV , Vavrilova VP , Belova AB & Klyachko NL (2001) Laccases from basidiomycetes: physicochemical characteristics and substrate specificity towards methoxyphenolic compounds. Biochemistry (Mosc) 66: 774779.
  • Soares GMB , Amorim MTP , Hrdina R & Costa-Ferreira M (2002) Studies on the biotransformation of novel disazo dyes by laccase. Process Biochem 37: 581587.
  • Solomon EI , Chen P , Metz M , Lee SK & Palmer AE (2001) Oxygen binding, activation, and reduction to water by copper proteins. Angew Chem 40: 45704590.
  • Solomon EI , Sundaram UM & Machonkin TE (1996) Multicopper oxidases and oxygenases. Chem Rev 96: 25632605.
  • Srinivasan C , D'Souza TM , Boominathan K & Reddy CA (1995) Demonstration of laccase in the white rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium BKM-F1767. Appl Environ Microbiol 61: 42744277.
  • Steffen KT , Hofrichter M & Hatakka A (2002) Purification and characterization of manganese peroxidases from the litter-decomposing basidiomycetes Agrocybe praecox and Stropharia coronilla. Enzyme Microb Technol 30: 550555.
  • Sterjiades R , Dean JFD & Eriksson KEL (1992) Laccase from sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) polymerizes monolignols. Plant Physiol 99: 11621168.
  • Stoj C & Kosman DJ (2003) Cuprous oxidase activity of yeast Fet3p and human ceruloplasmin: implication for function. FEBS Lett 554: 422426.
  • Sulistyaningdyah WT , Ogawa J , Tanaka H , Maeda C & Shimizu S (2004) Characterization of alkaliphilic laccase activity in the culture supernatant of Myrothecium verrucaria 24G-4 in comparison with bilirubin oxidase. FEMS Microbiol Lett 230: 209214.
  • Svobodová K (2005) The implications of ligninolytic enzymes in the decolorization of synthetic dyes by the white-rot fungus Irpex lacteus. PhD Thesis, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.
  • Tatsumi K , Freyer A , Minard RD & Bollag JM (1994) Enzyme-mediated coupling of 3,4-dichloroaniline and ferulic acid – a model for pollutant binding to humic materials. Environ Sci Technol 28: 210215.
  • Thakker GD , Evans CS & Rao KK (1992) Purification and characterization of laccase from Monocillium indicum Saxena. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 37: 321323.
  • Thurston CF (1994) The structure and function of fungal laccases. Microbiology 140: 1926.
  • Timonen S & Sen R (1998) Heterogeneity of fungal and plant enzyme expression in intact Scots pine Suillus bovinus and Paxillus involutus mycorrhizospheres developed in natural forest humus. New Phytol 138: 355366.
  • Torres E , Bustos-Jaimes I & Le Borgne S (2003) Potential use of oxidative enzymes for the detoxification of organic pollutants. Applied Catal B-Environ 46: 115.
  • Tsioulpas A , Dimou D , Iconomou D & Aggelis G (2002) Phenolic removal in olive oil mill wastewater by strains of Pleurotus spp. in respect to their phenol oxidase (laccase) activity. Biores Technol 84: 251257.
  • Ullah MA , Bedford CT & Evans CS (2000) Reactions of pentachlorophenol with laccase from Coriolus versicolor. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 53: 230234.
  • Ullrich R , Huong LM , Dung NL & Hofrichter M (2005) Laccase from the medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei: production, purification and characterization. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 67: 357363.
  • Vaitkyavichyus RK , Belzhite VA , Chenas NK , Banis RG & Kulis YY (1984) Isolation and kinetic parameters of laccase from Polyporus anisoporus. Biochemistry (Mosc) 49: 859863.
  • Valášková V & Baldrian P (2005) Estimation of bound and free fractions of lignocellulose-degrading enzymes of wood-rotting fungi Pleurotus ostreatus, T. versicolor and Piptoporus betulinus. Res Microbiol doi: 10.1016/j.resmic.2005.06.004 (in press) .
  • Vares T & Hatakka A (1997) Lignin-degrading activity and ligninolytic enzymes of different white-rot fungi: effects of manganese and malonate. Can J Bot 75: 6171.
  • Vares T , Kalsi M & Hatakka A (1995) Lignin peroxidases, manganese peroxidases, and other ligninolytic enzymes produced by Phlebia radiata during solid-state fermentation of wheat straw. Appl Environ Microbiol 61: 35153520.
  • Vares T , Lundell TK & Hatakka A (1992) Novel heme-containing enzyme possibly involved in lignin degradation by the white-rot fungus Junghuhnia separabilima. FEMS Microbiol Lett 99: 5358.
  • Vares T , Niemenmaa O & Hatakka A (1994) Secretion of ligninolytic enzymes and mineralization of 14C-ring-labelled synthetic lignin by three Phlebia tremellosa strains. Appl Environ Microbiol 60: 569575.
  • Vasconcelos AFD , Barbosa AM , Dekker RFH , Scarminio IS & Rezende MI (2000) Optimization of laccase production by Botryosphaeria sp. in the presence of veratryl alcohol by the response-surface method. Process Biochem 35: 11311138.
  • Velazquez-Cedeno MA , Farnet AM , Ferre E & Savoie JM (2004) Variations of lignocellulosic activities in dual cultures of Pleurotus ostreatus and Trichoderma longibrachiatum on unsterilized wheat straw. Mycologia 96: 712719.
  • Velazquez-Cedeno M A , Mata G & Savoie JM (2002) Waste-reducing cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus pulmonarius on coffee pulp: changes in the production of some lignocellulolytic enzymes. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 18: 201207.
  • Wahleithner JA , Xu F , Brown KM , Brown SH , Golightly EJ , Halkier T , Kauppinen S , Pederson A & Schneider P (1996) The identification and characterization of four laccases from the plant pathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani. Curr Genet 29: 395403.
  • Wang HX & Ng TB (2004a) Purification of a novel low-molecular-mass laccase with HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity from the mushroom Tricholoma giganteum. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 315: 450454.
  • Wang HX & Ng TB (2004b) A novel laccase with fair thermostability from the edible wild mushroom (Albatrella dispansus). Biochem Biophys Res Commun 319: 381385.
  • Wang HX & Ng TB (2004c) A new laccase from dried fruiting bodies of the monkey head mushroom Hericium erinaceum. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 322: 1721.
  • Wesenberg D , Kyriakides I & Agathos SN (2003) White-rot fungi and their enzymes for the treatment of industrial dye effluents. Biotechnol Adv 22: 161187.
  • Williams CJ , Shingara EA & Yavitt JB (2000) Phenol oxidase activity in peatlands in New York State: response to summer drought and peat type. Wetlands 20: 416421.
  • Williamson PR (1994) Biochemical and molecular characterization of the diphenol oxidase of Cryptococcus neoformans– identification as a laccase. J Bacteriol 176: 656664.
  • Wong YX & Yu J (1999) Laccase-catalyzed decolorization of synthetic dyes. Water Res 33: 35123520.
  • Wood DA (1980) Production, purification and properties of extracellular laccase of Agaricus bisporus. J Gen Microbiol 117: 327338.
  • Xiao YZ , Tu XM , Wang J , Zhang M , Cheng Q , Zeng WY & Shi YY (2003) Purification, molecular characterization and reactivity with aromatic compounds of a laccase from basidiomycete Trametes sp. strain AH28-2. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 60: 700707.
  • Xu F (1996) Oxidation of phenols, anilines, and benzenethiols by fungal laccases: Correlation between activity and redox potentials as well as halide inhibition. Biochemistry 35: 76087614.
  • Xu F (1997) Effects of redox potential and hydroxide inhibition on the pH activity profile of fungal laccases. J Biol Chem 272: 924928.
  • Xu F , Kulys JJ , Duke K , Li KC , Krikstopaitis K , Deussen HJW , Abbate E , Galinyte V & Schneider P (2000) Redox chemistry in laccase-catalyzed oxidation of N-hydroxy compounds. Appl Environ Microbiol 66: 20522056.
  • Xu F , Shin WS , Brown SH , Wahleithner JA , Sundaram UM & Solomon EI (1996) A study of a series of recombinant fungal laccases and bilirubin oxidase that exhibit significant differences in redox potential, substrate specificity, and stability. Biochim Biophys Acta 1292: 303311.
  • Yaver DS , Xu F , Golightly EJ , Brown KM , Brown SH , Rey MW , Schneider P , Halkier T , Mondorf K & Dalboge H (1996) Purification, characterization, molecular cloning, and expression of two laccase genes from the white rot basidiomycete Trametes villosa. Appl Environ Microbiol 62: 834841.
  • Yavmetdinov IS , Stepanova EV , Gavrilova VP , Lokshin BV , Perminova IV & Koroleva OV (2003) Isolation and characterization of humin-like substances produced by wood-degrading white rot fungi. Appl Biochem Microbiol 39: 257264.
  • Yoshida H (1883) Chemistry of lacquer (Urushi). Part 1. J Chem Soc 43: 472486.
  • Yoshitake A , Katayama Y , Nakamura M , Iimura Y , Kawai S & Morohoshi N (1993) N-Linked carbohydrate chains protect laccase-III from proteolysis in Coriolus versicolor. J Gen Microbiol 139: 179185.
  • Zavarzina AG , Leontievsky AA , Golovleva LA & Trofimov SY (2004) Biotransformation of soil humic acids by blue laccase of Panus tigrinus 8/18: an in vitro study. Soil Biol Biochem 36: 359369.
  • Zhu XD , Gibbons J , Garcia-Rivera J , Casadevall A & Williamson PR (2001) Laccase of Cryptococcus neoformans is a cell wall-associated virulence factor. Infect Immun 69: 55895596.
  • Zille A , Tzanov T , Gubitz GM & Cavaco-Paulo A (2003) Immobilized laccase for decolorization of Reactive Black 5 dyeing effluent. Biotechnol Lett 25: 14731477.
  • Zouari H , Labat M & Sayadi S (2002) Degradation of 4-chlorophenol by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chryosporium in free and immobilized cultures. Biores Technol 84: 145150.
  • Zouari N , Romette JL & Thomas D (1987) Purification and properties of 2 laccase isoenzymes produced by Botrytis cinerea. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 15: 213225.