• [1]
    Raskin, L., Capman, W.C., Sharp, R. and Stahl, D.A. (1997) Molecular Ecology of Gastrointestinal Ecosystems, In: Gastrointestinal Microbiology and Host Interactions, Vol. 2 (Mackie, R.I., White, B.A. and Isaacson, R.E., Eds.), Chapman and Hall.
  • [2]
    Stewart, C.S. and Bryant, M.P. (1988) The rumen bacteria, In: The Rumen Microbial Ecosystem (Hobson, P.N., Ed.), pp. 2175. Elsevier, New York and London .
  • [3]
    Wolin, M.J. and Miller, T.L. (1988) Microbe-microbe interactions, In: The Rumen Microbial Ecosystem (Hobson, P.N., Ed.), pp. 343359. Elsevier, New York and London .
  • [4]
    Vogels, G.D., Hoppe, W.F. and Stumm, C.K. (1980) Association of methanogenic bacteria with rumen ciliates. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 40, 608612.
  • [5]
    Stumm, C.K., Gizjen, H.J. and Vogels, G.D. (1982) Association of methanogenic bacteria with ovine rumen ciliates. Br. J. Nutr. 47, 9599.
  • [6]
    Lee, M.J., Schruers, P.J., Messer, A.C. and Zinder, S.H. (1987) Association of methanogenic bacteria with flagellated protozoa from a termite hindgut. Curr. Microbiol. 15, 337341.
  • [7]
    Gijzen, H.J., Broers, C.A.M., Barughare, M. and Stumm, C.K. (1991) Methanogenic bacteria as endosymbionts of the ciliate Nycotherus ovalis in the cockroach hindgut. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57, 16301634.
  • [8]
    Ohkuma, M., Noda, S., Horikoshi, K. and Kudo, T. (1995) Phylogeny of symbiotic methanogens in the gut of termite Reticulitermes speratus. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 134, 4550.
  • [9]
    Embley, T.M., Finlay, B.J., Thomas, R.H. and Dyal, D.L. (1992) The use of rRNA sequences and fluorescent probes to investigate the phylogenetic positions of the anaerobic ciliate Metopus contortus and its Archaeobacterial endosymbiont. J. Gen. Microbiol. 138, 14791487.
  • [10]
    Embley, T.M. and Finlay, B.J. (1993) Systematics and morphological diversity of endosymbiotic methanogens in anaerobic ciliates. Antonie van leeuwenhoek 64, 261271.
  • [11]
    Finlay, B.J., Embley, T.M. and Fenchel, T. (1993) A new polymorphic methanogen, closely related to Methanocorpusculum parvum, living in stable symbiosis within the anaerobic ciliate Trimyema sp. J. Gen. Microbiol. 139, 371378.
  • [12]
    Wolin, M.J. (1974) Metabolic interactions among intestinal microorganisms. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 27, 13201328.
  • [13]
    Stahl, D.A. and Amann, R. (1991) Development and application of nucleic acid probes, In: Nucleic Acid Techniques in Bacterial Systematics (Stackebrandt, E. and Goodfellow, M., Eds.), pp. 205248. Wiley, New York .
  • [14]
    Raskin, L., Stromley, J.M., Rittamnn, B.E. and Stahl, D.A. (1994) Group-specific 16S rRNA probes to describe natural communities of methanogens. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60, 12321240.
  • [15]
    Raskin, L., Poulsen, L.K., Noguera, N.G., Rittmann, B.E. and Stahl, D.A. (1994) Quantification of methanogenic groups in anaerobic biological reactors by oligonucleotide probe hybridization. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60, 12411248.
  • [16]
    Hoover, W.H., Crooker, B.A. and Sniffen, C.J. (1976) Effects of differential solid-liquid removal rates on protozoal numbers in continuous culture of rumen contents. J. Anim. Sci. 43, 528534.
  • [17]
    Hannah, S.M., Stern, M.D. and Ehle, F.R. (1986) Evaluation of a dual flow continuous culture system for establishing bacterial fermentation in vivo of mixed diets containing various soybean products. Anim. Feed. Sci. Technol. 16, 5162.
  • [18]
    Stahl, D.A., Flesher, B.D., Mansfield, H.R. and Montgomery, L. (1988) Use of phylogenetically-based probes for studies of ruminal microbial ecology. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 54, 10792084.
  • [19]
    Raskin, L., Capman, W.C., Kane, M.D., Rittmann, B.E. and Stahl, D.A. (1996) Critical evaluation of membrane supports for use in quantitative hydridizations. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62, 300303.
  • [20]
    Trinci, A.P.J., Davies, D.R., Gull, K., Lawrence, M.I., Neilsen, B.B., Rickers, A. and Theodoru, M.K. (1994) Anaerobic rumen fungi in herbivorous animals. Mycol. Res. 98, 129152.
  • [21]
    Finlay, B.J., Esteban, G., Clarke, K.J., Williams, A.G., Embley, T.M. and Hirt, R.P. (1994) Some rumen ciliates have endosymbiotic methanogens. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 117, 157162.
  • [22]
    Finlay, B.J. and Fenchel, T. (1992) Methanogens and other bacteria as symbionts of free-living anaerobic ciliates. Symbiosis 14, 375390.
  • [23]
    Lin, C., Raskin, L. and Stahl, D.A. (1997) Microbial community structure in gastrointestinal tracts of domestic animals: Comparative analyses using rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 22, 281294.
  • [24]
    Miller, T.L., Wolin, M.J., Hongxue, Z. and Bryant, M.P. (1986) Characteristics of methanogens isolated from bovine rumen. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 51, 201202.
  • [25]
    Miller, T.L. and Wolin, M.J. (1982) Enumeration of Methanobrevibacter smithii in human feces. Arch. Microbiol. 131, 1418.
  • [26]
    Paynter, M.J.B. and Hungate, R.E. (1968) Characterization of Methanobacterium mobilis sp. isolated from the bovine rumen. J. Bacteriol. 95, 19431951.
  • [27]
    Embley, T.M. and Finlay, B.J. (1994) The use of small subunit rRNA sequences to unravel the relationships between anaerobic ciliates and their methanogen endosymbionts. Microbiology 140, 225235.
  • [28]
    van Bruggen, J.J.A., Zwart, K.B., Hermans, J.G., van Hove, F.E.M., Stumm, C.K. and Vogels, G.D. (1986) Isolation and characterization of Methanoplanus endosymbioisis sp. nov. an endosymbiont of the marine sapropelic ciliate Metopus contortus. Arch. Microbiol. 144, 2023.
  • [29]
    Williams, A.G. (1986) Rumen holotrich ciliate protozoa. Microbiol. Rev. 50, 2549.
  • [30]
    Lovely, D.R., Greening, R.C. and Ferry, J.C. (1984) Rapidly growing rumen methanogenic organism that synthesizes coenzyme M and has a high affinity for formate. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 48, 8187.
  • [31]
    Pol, A. and Demeyer, D.I. (1988) Fermentation of methanol in the sheep rumen. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 54, 832834.