• [1]
    Fuhrman, J.A., Davis, A.A. (1997) Widespread Archaea and novel Bacteria from the deep sea as shown by 16S rRNA gene sequences. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 150, 275285.
  • [2]
    Fuhrman, J.A., McCallum, K., Davis, A.A. (1993) Phylogenetic diversity of subsurface marine microbial communities from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59, 12941302.
  • [3]
    Giovannoni, S.J., Rappé, M.S., Gordon, D., Urbach, E., Suzuki, M. and Field, K.G. (1996) Ribosomal RNA and the evolution of bacterial diversity. In: Evolution of Microbial Life (Roberts, D.McL., Sharp, P., Alderson, G. and Collins, M., Eds.), pp. 63–85. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • [4]
    Mullins, T.D., Britschgi, T.B., Krest, R.L., Giovannoni, S.J. (1995) Genetic comparisons reveal the same unknown bacterial lineages in Atlantic and Pacific bacterioplankton communities. Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 148158.
  • [5]
    Schut, F., Prins, R.A., Gottschal, J.C. (1997) Oligotrophy and pelagic marine bacteria: Facts and fiction. Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 12, 177202.
  • [6]
    Button, D.K., Schut, F., Quang, P., Martin, R., Robertson, B.R. (1993) Viability and isolation of marine bacteria by dilution culture: Theory, procedures, and initial results. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59, 881891.
  • [7]
    Suzuki, M.T., Rappé, M.S., Haimberger, Z.W., Winfield, H., Adair, N., Ströbel, J., Giovannoni, S.J. (1997) Bacterial diversity among small-subunit rRNA gene clones and cellular isolates from the same seawater sample. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63, 983989.
  • [8]
    Bianchi, A., Giuliano, L. (1996) Enumeration of viable bacteria in the marine pelagic environment. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62, 174177.
  • [9]
    Lilley, M.D., Feely, R.A. and Trefry, J.H. (1995) Chemical and biochemical transformations in hydrothermal plumes. In: Seafloor Hydrothermal Systems: Physical, Chemical, Biological, and Geological Interactions, Geophysical Monograph 91 (Humphris, S.E., Zierenberg, R.A., Mullineaux, L.S. and Thomson, R.E., Eds.), pp. 369–391. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC.
  • [10]
    Jannasch, H.W. (1995) Microbial interactions with hydrothermal fluids. In: Seafloor Hydrothermal Systems: Physical, Chemical, Biological, and Geological Interactions, Geophysical Monograph 91 (Humphris, S.E., Zierenberg, R.A., Mullineaux, L.S. and Thomson, R.E., Eds.), pp. 273–296. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC.
  • [11]
    Von Damm, K.L. (1995) Controls on the chemistry and temporal variability of seafloor hydrothermal fluids. In: Seafloor Hydrothermal Systems: Physical, Chemical, Biological, and Geological Interactions, Geophysical Monograph 91 (Humphris, S.E., Zierenberg, R.A., Mullineaux, L.S. and Thomson, R.E., Eds.), pp. 222–247. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC.
  • [12]
    Baross, J.A. and Deming, J.W. (1995) Growth at high temperatures: Isolation and taxonomy, physiology, ecology. In: The Microbiology of Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents (Karl, D.M., Ed.), pp. 169–217. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
  • [13]
    Winn, C.D., Cowen, J.P. and Karl, D.M. (1995) Microbes in deep-sea hydrothermal plumes. In: The Microbiology of Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents (Karl, D.M., Ed.), pp. 255–273. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
  • [14]
    Moyer, C.L., Dobbs, F.C., Karl, D.M. (1995) Phylogenetic diversity of the bacterial community from a microbial mat at an active, hydrothermal vent system, Loihi Seamount, Hawaii. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61, 15551562.
  • [15]
    Takai, K., Horikoshi, K. (1999) Genetic diversity of Archaea in deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments. Genetics 152, 12851297.
  • [16]
    Karl, D.M. (1995) Ecology of free-living, hydrothermal vent microbial communities. In: The Microbiology of Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents (Karl, D.M., Ed.), pp. 35–124. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
  • [17]
    Kaye, J.Z. and Baross, J.A. (1998) Salt-tolerant microbes isolated from hydrothermal-vent environments, Abstracts of the American Geophysical Union Annual Fall Meeting, abstr. U32A-18, p. F59. San Francisco, CA.
  • [18]
    Baross, J.A. (1993) Isolation and cultivation of hyperthermophilic bacteria from marine and freshwater habitats. In: Handbook of Methods in Aquatic Microbial Ecology (Kemp, P.F., Sherr, B.F., Sherr, E.B. and Cole, J.J., Eds.), pp. 21–30. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL.
  • [19]
    Pledger, R.J., Baross, J.A. (1991) Preliminary description and nutritional characterization of a chemoorganotrophic archaeobacterium growing at temperatures of up to 110°C isolated from a submarine hydrothermal vent environment. J. Gen. Microbiol. 137, 203211.
  • [20]
    Balch, W.E., Wolfe, R.S. (1976) New approach to the cultivation of methanogenic bacteria: 2-mercaptoethane-sulfonic acid (HS-CoM)-dependent growth of Methanobacterium ruminantium in a pressurized atmosphere. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 32, 781791.
  • [21]
    Greenberg, A.E., Clescen, L.S. and Eaton, A.D. (1992) Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 18th edn. American Public Health Association, Washington, DC.
  • [22]
    Von Damm, K.L., Edmond, J.M., Grant, B., Measures, C.I., Walden, B., Weiss, R.F. (1985) Chemistry of submarine hydrothermal solutions at 21°N, East Pacific Rise. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 49, 21972220.
  • [23]
    Porter, K.G., Feig, Y.S. (1980) The use of DAPI for identifying and counting microflora. Limnol. Oceanogr. 25, 943948.
  • [24]
    Doetsch, R.N. (1981) Determinative methods of light microscopy. In: Manual of Methods for General Bacteriology (Gerhardt, P., Murray, R.G.E., Costilow, R.N., Nester, E.W., Wood, W.A., Krieg, N.R. and Phillips, G.B., Eds.), pp. 21–33. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
  • [25]
    Bochner, B.R. (1989) Sleuthing out bacterial identities. Nature 339, 157158.
  • [26]
    Smibert, R.M. and Krieg, N.R. (1981) Systematics: General characterization. In: Manual of Methods for General Bacteriology (Gerhardt, P., Murray, R.G.E., Costilow, R.N., Nester, E.W., Wood, W.A., Krieg, N.R. and Phillips, G.B., Eds.), pp. 409–443. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
  • [27]
    Reysenbach, A.-L., Giver, L.J., Wickham, G.S., Pace, N.R. (1992) Differential amplification of rRNA genes by polymerase chain reaction. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58, 34173418.
  • [28]
    Maidak, B.L., Cole, J.R. C.T. Parker Jr. Garrity, G.M., Larsen, N., Li, B., Lilburn, T.G., McCaughey, M.J., Olsen, G.J., Overbeek, R., Pramanik, S., Schmidt, T.M., Tiedje, J.M., Woese, C.R. (1999) A new version of the RDP (Ribosomal Database Project). Nucleic Acids Res. 27, 171173.
  • [29]
    Kuhner, M.K., Felsenstein, J. (1994) A simulation comparison of phylogeny algorithms under equal and unequal evolutionary rates. Mol. Biol. Evol. 11, 459468.
  • [30]
    Saitou, N., Nei, M. (1987) The neighbor-joining method: A new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol. Biol. Evol. 4, 406425.
  • [31]
    Page, R.D.M. (1996) TREEVIEW: An application to display phylogenetic trees on personal computers. Comput. Appl. Biosci. 12, 357358.
  • [32]
    Caspi, R., Haygood, M.G., Tebo, B.M. (1996) Unusual ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase genes from a marine manganese-oxidizing bacterium. Microbiology 142, 25492559.
  • [33]
    Takami, H., Kobata, K., Nagahama, T., Kobayashi, H., Inoue, A., Horikoshi, K. (1999) Biodiversity in deep-sea sites located near the south part of Japan. Extremophiles 3, 97102.
  • [34]
    Ventosa, A., Nieto, J.J., Oren, A. (1998) Biology of moderately halophilic aerobic bacteria. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 62, 504544.
  • [35]
    Gauthier, M.J., Lafay, B., Christen, R., Fernandez, L., Acquaviva, M., Bonin, P., Bertrand, J.-C. (1992) Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus gen. nov., sp. nov., a new, extremely halotolerant, hydrocarbon-degrading marine bacterium. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 42, 568576.
  • [36]
    Huu, N.B., Denner, E.B.M., Ha, D.T.C., Wanner, G., Stan-Lotter, H. (1999) Marinobacter aquaeolei sp. nov., a halophilic bacterium isolated from a Vietnamese oil-producing well. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 49, 367375.
  • [37]
    Orphan, V.J., Taylor, L.T., Goffredi, S.K. and DeLong, E.F. (1998) Characterization of microbial assemblages associated with a high temperature offshore oil reservoir with molecular and culture-based methods, Abstracts of the American Society for Microbiology 98th General Meeting, abstr. N-101, p. 382. Atlanta, GA.
  • [38]
    Baumann, L., Baumann, P., Mandel, M., Allen, R.D. (1972) Taxonomy of aerobic marine eubacteria. J. Bacteriol. 110, 402429.
  • [39]
    Spröer, C., Lang, E., Hobeck, P., Burghardt, J., Stackebrandt, E., Tindall, B.J. (1998) Transfer of Pseudomonas nautica to Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 48, 14451448.
  • [40]
    Turley, C.M., Hughes, D.J. (1994) The effect of storage temperature on the enumeration of epifluorescence-detectable bacterial cells in preserved sea-water samples. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK 74, 259262.
  • [41]
    de Angelis, M.A., Lilley, M.D., Olson, E.J., Baross, J.A. (1993) Methane oxidation in deep-sea hydrothermal plumes of the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Deep-Sea Res. I 40, 11691186.
  • [42]
    Holden, J.F., Summit, M., Baross, J.A. (1998) Thermophilic and hyperthermophilic microorganisms in 3–30°C hydrothermal fluids following a deep-sea volcanic eruption. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 25, 3341.
  • [43]
    Dobson, S.J., McMeekin, T.A., Franzmann, P.D. (1993) Phylogenetic relationships between some members of the genera Deleya, Halomonas, and Halovibrio. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 43, 665673.
  • [44]
    Schut, F., de Vries, E.J., Gottschal, J.C., Robertson, B.R., Harder, W., Prins, R.A., Button, D.K. (1993) Isolation of typical marine bacteria by dilution culture: Growth, maintenance, and characteristics of isolates under laboratory conditions. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59, 21502160.
  • [45]
    Javor, B. (1989) Hypersaline Environments: Microbiology and Biogeochemistry, Springer-Verlag, New York.
  • [46]
    Bischoff, J.L., Rosenbauer, R.J. (1984) The critical point and two-phase boundary of seawater, 200–500°C. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 68, 172180.
  • [47]
    Fournier, R.O. (1987) Conceptual models of brine evolution in magmatic-hydrothermal systems. US Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 1350, 14871506.
  • [48]
    Fox, C. (1990) Consequences of phase separation on the distribution of hydrothermal fluids at ASHES vent field, Axial Volcano, Juan de Fuca Ridge. J. Geophys. Res. 95, 1292312926.
  • [49]
    Goldfarb, M.S., Delaney, J.R. (1988) Response of two-phase fluids to fracture configurations within submarine hydrothermal systems. J. Geophys. Res. 93, 45854594.
  • [50]
    Butterfield, D.A., McDuff, R.E., Mottl, M.J., Lilley, M.D., Lupton, J.E., Massoth, G.J. (1994) Gradients in the composition of hydrothermal fluids from the Endeavour segment vent field: Phase separation and brine loss. J. Geophys. Res. 99, 95619583.
  • [51]
    Delaney, J.R., Robigou, V., McDuff, R.E., Tivey, M.K. (1992) Geology of a vigorous hydrothermal system on the Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge. J. Geophys. Res. 97, 1966319682.
  • [52]
    Delaney, J.R., Kelley, D.S., Lilley, M.D., Butterfield, D.A., McDuff, R.E., Baross, J.A., Deming, J.W., Johnson, H.P., Robigou, V. (1997) The Endeavour hydrothermal system I: Cellular circulation above an active cracking front yields large sulfide structures, ‘fresh’ vent water, and hyperthermophilic Archaea. RIDGE Events 8, 1119.
  • [53]
    Fornari, D.J., Shank, T., Von Damm, K.L., Gregg, T.K.P., Lilley, M., Levai, G., Bray, A., Haymon, R.M., Perfit, R.M., Lutz, R. (1998) Time-series temperature measurements at high-temperature hydrothermal vents, East Pacific Rise 9°49′–51′N: Evidence for monitoring a crustal cracking event. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 160, 419431.
  • [54]
    Kelley, D.S. (1997) Fluid evolution in slow-spreading environments. In: Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, Vol. 153 (Karson, J.A., Cannat, M., Miller, D.J. and Elthon, D., Eds.), pp. 399–415. Ocean Drilling Program, College Station, TX.
  • [55]
    Kelley, D.S., Delaney, J.R. (1987) Two-phase separation and fracturing in mid-ocean ridge gabbros at temperatures greater than 700°C. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 83, 5366.
  • [56]
    Cline, J.S., Bodnar, R.J. (1991) Can economic porphyry copper mineralization be generated by a typical calc-alkaline melt. J. Geophys. Res. 96, 81138126.
  • [57]
    Kelley, D.S., Robinson, P.T., Malpas, J.G. (1992) Processes of brine generation and circulation in the oceanic crust: Fluid inclusion evidence from the Troodos ophiolite. J. Geophys. Res. 97, 93079322.
  • [58]
    Kelley, D.S., Gillis, K.M., Thompson, G. (1993) Fluid evolution in submarine magma-hydrothermal systems at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. J. Geophys. Res. 98, 1957919596.
  • [59]
    Kelley, D.S., Robinson, P.T. (1990) Development of a brine-dominated hydrothermal system at temperatures of 400–500°C in the upper level plutonic sequence, Troodos ophiolite, Cyprus. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 54, 653661.
  • [60]
    Bischoff, J.L., Rosenbauer, R.J. (1989) Salinity variations in submarine hydrothermal systems by layered double-diffusive convection. J. Geol. 97, 613623.
  • [61]
    Nehlig, P. (1993) Interactions between magma chambers and hydrothermal systems: Oceanic and ophiolitic constraints. J. Geophys. Res. 98, 1962119633.
  • [62]
    Butterfield, D.A., Massoth, G.J. (1994) Geochemistry of north Cleft segment vent fluids: Temporal changes in chlorinity and their possible relation to recent volcanism. J. Geophys. Res. 99, 49514968.
  • [63]
    Butterfield, D.A., Jonasson, I.R., Massoth, G.J., Feely, R.A., Roe, K.K., Embley, R.E., Holden, J.F., McDuff, R.E., Lilley, M.D., Delaney, J.R. (1997) Seafloor eruptions and evolution of hydrothermal fluid chemistry. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 355, 369386.
  • [64]
    Adkins, J.P., Madigan, M.T., Mandelco, L., Woese, C.R., Tanner, R.S. (1993) Arhodomonas aquaeolei gen. nov., sp. nov., an aerobic, halophilic bacterium isolated from a subterranean brine. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 43, 514520.
  • [65]
    Vreeland, R.H. and Huval, J.H. (1991) Phenotypic characterization of halophilic bacteria from ground water sources in the United States. In: General and Applied Aspects of Halophilic Microorganisms (Rodriguez-Valera, F., Ed.), pp. 53–60. Plenum Press, New York.