• [1]
    Burns, R.C. and Hardy, R.W.F. (1975) Nitrogen Fixation in Bacteria and Higher Plants, pp. 43–60. Springer, Berlin.
  • [2]
    Amann, R., Springer, N., Ludwig, W., Görtz, H.-D., Schleifer, K.H. (1991) Identification in situ and phylogeny of uncultured bacterial endosymbionts. Nature (Lond.) 251, 161164.
  • [3]
    Torsvik, V., Goksoyr, J., Daae, F.L. (1990) High diversity in DNA of soil bacteria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56, 782787.
  • [4]
    Ward, D.M., Weller, R., Bateson, M.M. (1990) 16S rRNA sequences reveal numerous uncultured inhabitants in a natural community. Nature (Lond.) 345, 6365.
  • [5]
    Hallin, S., Lindgren, P.-E. (1999) PCR detection of genes encoding nitrite reductase in denitrifying bacteria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65, 16521657.
  • [6]
    Ward, B.B. (1995) Diversity of culturable denitrifying bacteria. Limits of rDNA RFLP analysis for the functional gene, nitrite reductase. Arch. Microbiol. 163, 167175.
  • [7]
    Ruvkun, G.B., Ausubel, F.M. (1980) Interspecies homology of nitrogenase genes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 191195.
  • [8]
    Coyne, M., Arunakumari, A., Averill, B., Tiedje, J.M. (1989) Immunological identification and distribution of dissimilatory heme cd1 and nonheme copper nitrite reductases in denitrifying bacteria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 55, 29242931.
  • [9]
    Smith, G.B., Tiedje, J.M. (1992) Isolation and characterization of a nitrite reductase gene and its use as a probe for denitrifying bacteria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58, 376384.
  • [10]
    Kloos, K., Fesefeldt, A., Gliesche, C.G., Bothe, H. (1995) DNA-probing indicates the occurrence of denitrifying and nitrogen fixation genes in Hyphomicrobium. Distribution of denitrifying and nitrogen fixing isolates in a sewage treatment plant. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 18, 205213.
  • [11]
    Kloos, K., Hüsgen, U., Bothe, H. (1999) DNA-probing for genes coding for denitrification, N2-fixation and nitrification in bacteria isolated from different soils. Z. NaturForsch. 53c, 6981.
  • [12]
    Linne von Berg, K.-H., Bothe, H. (1992) The distribution of denitrifying bacteria in soils monitored by DNA-probing. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 86, 331340.
  • [13]
    Neef, A., Zaglauer, H., Amann, R., Lemmer, H., Schleifer, K.-H. (1996) Population analysis in a denitrifying sand filter: conventional and in situ identification of Paracoccus spp. in methanol-fed biofilms. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62, 43294339.
  • [14]
    G. BrakerA. FesefeldtK.-P. Witzel Development of PCR primer systems for amplification of nitrite reductase genes (nirK and nirS) to detect denitrifying bacteria in environmental samples, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 64 1998 3969.
  • [15]
    Smith, S.E. and Read, D.J. (1997) Mycorrhizal Symbiosis, 2nd edn. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
  • [16]
    Tebbe, C.C., Vahjen, W. (1993) Interference of humic acids and DNA extracted directly from soil in detection and transformation of recombinant DNA from bacteria and yeast. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59, 26572665.
  • [17]
    Trevors, J.T., van Elsas, J.D. (1989) A review of selected methods in environmental microbial genetics. Can. J. Microbiol. 35, 895901.
  • [18]
    Clegg, C.D., Ritz, K., Griffith, B.S. (1997) Direct extraction of microbial community DNA from humified upland soils. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 25, 3033.
  • [19]
    Jacobsen, C.S., Rasmussen, O.F. (1992) Development and application of a new method to extract bacterial DNA from soil based on separation of bacteria from soil with cation-exchange resin. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58, 24582463.
  • [20]
    Porteous, L.A., Armstrong, J.L., Seidler, R.L., Waltrud, L.S. (1994) An effective method to extract DNA from environmental samples for polymerase chain reaction amplification and DNA fingerprint analysis. Curr. Microbiol. 29, 301307.
  • [21]
    Sandaa, R.-A., Torsvik, V., Enger, O., Daae, F.L., Castberg, T., Hahn, D. (1999) Analysis of bacterial communities in heavy metal-contaminated soils at different levels of resolution. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 30, 237251.
  • [22]
    Schwieger, F., Tebbe, C.C. (1997) Efficient and accurate PCR amplification and detection of a recombinant gene in DNA directly extracted from soil using the Expand™ High Fidelity PCR System and T4 Gene 32 Protein. Biochem. Newsl. 2, 7375.
  • [23]
    Wikström, P., Wiklund, A., Andersson, A.-C., Forsman, M. (1996) DNA recovery and PCR quantification of catechol 2,3-dioxygenase genes from different soil types. J. Biotechnol. 52, 107120.
  • [24]
    Zhou, J., Bruns, M.A., Tiedje, J.M. (1996) DNA recovery from soils of diverse compositions. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62, 316322.
  • [25]
    Rowell, D.L. (1994) Soil Science: Methods and Application, Longman, London.
  • [26]
    Schlichting, E., Blume, H.P. and Stahr, K. (1995) Bodenkundliches Praktikum, Pareys Studientexte 81, Blackwell Wissenschafts-Verlag, Berlin.
  • [27]
    Bothe, H., Klein, B., Stephan, M.P., Döbereiner, J. (1981) Transformation of inorganic nitrogen by Azospirillum spp.. Arch. Microbiol. 130, 96100.
  • [28]
    Sambrook, J., Fritsch, E. and Maniatis, T. (1989) Molecular Cloning. A Laboratory Manual, Vol. 1–3. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY.
  • [29]
    Orlov, D.S. (1974) Humic Acids of Soils (in Russian). Moscow State University (MGU), self-publisher, Moscow.
  • [30]
    McPherson, M.J., Baron, A.J., Pappin, D.C.D., Wootton, J.C. (1984) Respiratory nitrate reductase of Escherichia coli. Sequence identification of the large subunit gene. FEBS Lett. 177, 260264.
  • [31]
    Silvestrini, M.C., Galeotti, C.L., Gervais, M., Schinina, E., Barra, D., Bossa, F., Brunori, M. (1989) Nitrite reductase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Sequence of the gene and the protein. FEBS Lett. 254, 3338.
  • [32]
    M. NishiyamaJ. SuzukiM. KukimotoT. OhnukiS. HorinouchiT. Beppu Cloning and characterization of nitrite reductase gene from Alcaligenes faecalis and its expression in Escherichia coli, J. Gen. Microbiol., 139 1993 25.
  • [33]
    Viebrock, A., Zumft, W.G. (1988) Molecular cloning, heterologous expression, and primary structure of the structural gene for the copper nitrous oxide reductase from denitrifying Pseudomonas stutzeri. J. Bacteriol. 170, 46584668.
  • [34]
    De Zamaroczy, M., Delorme, F., Elmerich, C. (1989) Regulation of transcription and promoter mapping of the structural genes for nitrogenase (nifHDK) of Azospirillum brasilense Sp7. Mol. Gen. Genet. 220, 8894.
  • [35]
    Brosius, J., Dull, T.J., Sleeter, D.D., Noller, H.F. (1981) Gene organization and primary structure of a ribosomal RNA operon from Escherichia coli. J. Mol. Biol. 148, 107127.
  • [36]
    Döbereiner, J. and Pedrosa, F.O. (1987) Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria in Nonleguminous Crop Plants. Brock/Springer, Science Tech Publishers, Madison, WI.
  • [37]
    Yoshinari, T., Knowles, R. (1976) Acetylene inhibition of nitrous oxide reduction by denitrifying bacteria. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 69, 705710.
  • [38]
    Borneman, J., Skroch, P.W., O'Sullivan, K.M., Palus, J.M., Rumjanek, N.G., Jansen, J.L., Nienhuis, J., Triplett, E.W. (1996) Molecular microbial diversity of an agricultural soil in Wisconsin. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62, 19351943.
  • [39]
    Amann, R., Glöckner, F.-O., Neef, A. (1997) Modern methods in subsurface microbiology: in situ identification of microorganisms with nucleic acid probes. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 20, 191200.
  • [40]
    Wagner, M., Amann, R., Lemmer, H., Schleifer, K.H. (1993) Probing activated sludge with oligonuclides specific for proteobacteria: Inadequacy of culture-dependent methods for describing microbial community structure. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59, 15201525.
  • [41]
    Hodson, R.E., Dustman, W.A., Garg, R.P., Moran, M.A. (1995) In situ PCR for visualization of microscale distribution of specific genes and gene products in prokaryotic communities. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61, 40744082.
  • [42]
    Fesefeldt, A., Kloos, K., Bothe, H., Lemmer, H., Gliesche, C.G. (1998) Distribution of denitrification and nitrogen fixation genes in Hyphomicrobium spp. and other budding bacteria. Can. J. Microbiol. 44, 181186.
  • [43]
    Philippot, L., Renault, P., Sierra, J., Hénault, C., Clays-Josserand, A., Chenu, C., Chaussod, R., Lensi, R. (1996) Dissimilatory nitrite reductase provides a competitive advantage to Pseudomonas RTC01 to colonise the centre of soil aggregates. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 21, 75185.
  • [44]
    Felske, A., Wolterink, A., van Lis, R., de Vos, W.M., Akkermans, A.D.L. (1999) Searching for predominant soil bacteria: 16S rDNA cloning versus strain cultivation. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 30, 137145.
  • [45]
    Zumft, W.G. (1992) The denitrifying procaryotes. In: The Procaryotes (Balows, A., Trüper, H.G., Dworkin, M., Harder, W. and Schleifer, K.-H. (Eds.), pp. 443–582. Springer, Heidelberg.
  • [46]
    Bothe, H., Kloos, K., Kaiser, K., Schmitz, B. and Nawrath, K. (1997) Seasonal fluctuations of N2O-producing bacteria in an acid soil of a spruce forest. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop on Nitrous Oxide Emissions, Cologne, Berichte der Physikalischen Chemie, no. 41, pp. 315–319. Wuppertal.