SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • [1]
    Aarestrup, F., Ahrens, P., Madsen, M., Pallesen, L., Poulsen, R., Westh, H. (1996) Glycopeptide susceptibility among Danish Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis isolates of human and animal origin. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 40, 19381940.
  • [2]
    Klare, I., Heier, H., Claus, H., Böhme, G., Martin, S., Seltmann, S., Hakenbeck, R., Atanassova, V., Witte, W. (1995) Enterococcus faecium strains with vanA-mediated high-level glycopeptide resistance isolated from animal foodstuffs and fecal samples of humans in the community. Microb. Drug Res. 1, 265272.
  • [3]
    Bates, J. (1997) Epidemiology of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in the community and the relevance of farm animals to human infection. J. Hosp. Infect. 39, 7577.
  • [4]
    Harwood, V., Brownell, M., Perusek, W., Whitlock, J. (2001) Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp. isolated from wastewater and chicken feces in the United States. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 10, 49304933.
  • [5]
    Iversen, A., Kuhn, I., Franklin, A., Mollby, R. (2002) High prevalence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in Swedish sewage. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68, 28382842.
  • [6]
    Davison, J. (1999) Genetic exchange between bacteria in the environment. Plasmid 42, 7391.
  • [7]
    Barkay, T., Kroer, N., Rasmussen, L.D., Sorensen, S. (1995) Conjugal gene transfer at natural population densities in a microcosmos simulating an estuarine environment. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 16, 4354.
  • [8]
    Muela, A., Pocino, I., Arana, J., Justo, J., Iriberri, J., Barcina, J. (1994) Effects of growth phase and parental cell survival in river water on plasmid transfer between Escherichia coli strains. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60, 42734278.
  • [9]
    Kalmbach, S., Manz, W., Szewzyk, U. (1997) Dynamics of biofilm formation in drinking water: phylogenetic affiliation and metabolic potential of single cells assessed by formazan reduction and in situ hybridization. FEMS Microb. Ecol. 22, 265279.
  • [10]
    Schwartz, T., Hoffmann, S., Obst, U. (1998) Formation and bacterial composition of young, natural biofilms obtained from public bank-filtered drinking water systems. Water Res. 32, 27872797.
  • [11]
    Reasoner, D.J., Geldreich, E. (1985) A new medium for enumeration and subculture of bacteria from potable water. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 49, 17.
  • [12]
    DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung e.V. (1998) Methoden zur Empfindlichkeits-prüfung von mikrobiellen Krankheitserregern gegen Chemotherapeutika, DIN 58940, Vol. 3, Beuth Verlag, Berlin.
  • [13]
    Uhl, J., Kohner, P., Hopkins, M., Cockerill, F.R. (1997) Multiplex PCR detection of vanA, vanB, vanC-1, and vanC-2/3 genes in enterococci. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35, 703707.
  • [14]
    Klein, G., Pack, A., Reuter, G. (1998) Antibiotic resistance pattern of enterococci and occurrence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in raw minced beef and pork in Germany. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64, 18251830.
  • [15]
    Murakami, K., Minamide, W., Wada, K., Nakamura, E., Teraoka, H., Watanabe, S. (1991) Identification of methicillin-resistant strains of staphylococci by polymerase chain reaction. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29, 22402244.
  • [16]
    Arthur, M., Molinas, G., Depardieu, F., Courvalin, P. (1993) Characterization of Tn1546, Tn3-related transposon conferring glycopeptide resistance by synthesis of depsipeptide peptidoglycan precursors in Enterococcus faecium BM4147. J. Bacteriol. 175, 117127.
  • [17]
    Song, M.D., Wachi, M., Doi, M., Ishino, F., Matsuhashi, M. (1987) Evolution of an inducible penicillin-target protein in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by gene fusion. FEBS Lett. 221, 167171.
  • [18]
    Meier, H., Koob, C., Ludwig, W., Amann, R., Frahm, E., Hoffmann, S., Obst, U., Schleifer, K.H. (1997) Detection of enterococci with rRNA-targeted DNA probes and their use for hygienic drinking water control. Water Sci. Technol. 35, 437444.
  • [19]
    Altschuh, S., Madden, T., Schäffer, A., Zhang, J., Zhang, Z., Miller, W., Lipman, D. (1997) Gapped BLAST and PSI-Blast: a new generation of protein database search programs. Nucleic Acids Res. 25, 33893402.
  • [20]
    Giolitti, D., Cantoni, C. (1966) A medium for the isolation of staphylococci from foodstuffs. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 29, 395398.
  • [21]
    Murray, B. (1990) The life and times of Enterococcus. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 3, 4665.
  • [22]
    Feuerpfeil, I., López-Pila, J., Schmidt, R., Schneider, E., Szewzyk, R. (1999) Antibiotic resistant bacteria and antibiotics in the environment. Bundesgesundheitsbl.-Gesundheitsforsch.-Gesundheitsschutz 42, 3750.
  • [23]
    Vercauteren, E., Descheemaecker, P., Ieven, M., Sanders, C., Goossens, H. (1997) Comparison of screening methods for detection of extended-spectrum β-lactamases and their prevalence among blood isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. in a Belgian teaching hospital. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35, 21912197.
  • [24]
    Bush, K. (1989) Characterization of β-lactamase groups 1, 2a, 2b, and 2b′. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33, 264270.
  • [25]
    Galleni, M., Frere, J.M. (1985) A survey of the kinetic parameters of class C β-lactamases. Biochem. J. 255, 119122.
  • [26]
    Joris, B., de Meester, F., Galleni, M., Reckinger, G., Coyette, J., Frere, J.M. (1985) The β-lactamase of Enterobacter cloacae P99. Biochem. J. 228, 241248.
  • [27]
    Lingberg, F., Normark, S. (1986) Contribution of chromosomal beta-lactamases to beta-lactam resistance in Enterobacteriaceae. Rev. Infect. Dis. 8, 4350.
  • [28]
    Lodge, J.M., Minchin, S., Piddock, L., Busby, J. (1990) Cloning sequencing and analysis of the structural gene and regulatory region of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa chromosomal ampC β-lactamase. Biochem. J. 272, 627631.
  • [29]
    Spencer, R. (1996) Predominant pathogens found in the European prevalence of infections in intensive care study. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 15, 312.
  • [30]
    Witte, W., Klare, I., Werner, G. (1999) Selective pressure by antibiotics as feed additives. Infection 27, 3538.
  • [31]
    Klare, I., Badstubner, D., Konstabel, C., Böhme, G., Witte, W. (1999) Decreased incidence of vanA-type vancomycin-resistant enterococci isolated from poultry meat and from fecal samples of humans in the community after discontinuation of avoparcin usage in animal husbandry. Microb. Drug Resist. 5, 4552.
  • [32]
    Armstrong, J., Shigeno, D., Calomiris, J., Seidler, R. (1981) Antibiotic-resistant bacteria in drinking water. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 42, 277283.
  • [33]
    Kolwzan, B., Traczewska, T., Pawlaczyk-Szipilowa, M. (1991) Preliminary examination of resistance of bacteria isolated from drinking water to antibacterial agents. Environ. Prot. Eng. 17, 5360.
  • [34]
    Courvalin, P. (1990) Resistance of enterococci to glycopeptides. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 36, 22012203.
  • [35]
    Leclercq, R., Dutka-Malen, S., Brisson-Noel, A., Molinas, C., Derlot, E., Arthur, M., Duval, J., Courvalin, P. (1992) Resistance of enterococci to aminoglycosides and glycopeptides. Clin. Infect. Dis. 15, 495501.
  • [36]
    Patel, R. (2000) Enterococcal glycopeptide resistance genes in non-enterococcal organisms. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 185, 17.
  • [37]
    Halling-Sorensen, B., Nors Nielsen, S., Lanzky, P., Ingerslev, F, Holten Lützenhoft, H.C., Jorgensen, S.E. (1998) Occurrence, fate, and effects of pharmaceutical substances in the environment: a review. Chemosphere 36, 357393.
  • [38]
    Hartig, C., Storm, T., Jekel, M. (1999) Detection and identification of sulfonamide drugs in municipal wastewater by liquid chromatography completed with electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. 854, 163173.
  • [39]
    Hirsch, R., Ternes, T., Haberer, K., Kratz, K.L. (1999) Occurrence of antibiotics in the aquatic environment. Sci. Total Environ. 225, 109118.
  • [40]
    Roloff, J. (1988) Drugged waters. Sci. News 153, 187189.
  • [41]
    Al-Ahmad, A., Daschner, E.D., Kümmerer, K. (1999) Biodegradability of ceftotiam, ciprofloxacin, meropenem, penicillin G, and sulfamethoxazole and inhibition of wastewater bacteria. Appl. Environ. Toxicol. 37, 158163.
  • [42]
    Backhaus, T., Grimme, L.H. (1999) The toxicity of antibiotic agents to bioluminescent Vibrio fischeri. Chemosphere 38, 32913301.
  • [43]
    Levy, S. and Miller, R. (1989) Gene Transfer in the Environment, McGraw-Hill Book, New York.
  • [44]
    Pike, E. (1975) Aerobic Bacteria in Ecological Aspects of Used-Water Treatment, Vol. 1, pp. 1–63, Academic Press, London.
  • [45]
    Marcinek, H., Wirth, R., Muscholl-Silberhorn, A., Gauer, M. (1998) Enterococcus faecalis gene transfer under natural conditions in municipal sewage water treatment plants. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64, 626632.
  • [46]
    Baur, B., Hanselmann, K., Schlimme, W., Jenni, B. (1996) Genetic transformation in freshwater: Escherichia coli is able to develop natural competence. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62, 36733678.
  • [47]
    Baya, A.M., Brayton, P.R., Brown, V.L., Grimes, D.J., Russek-Cohen, E., Colwell, R. (1986) Coincident plasmids and antimicrobial resistance in marine bacteria isolated from polluted and unpolluted atlantic ocean samples. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 51, 12851292.
  • [48]
    Hryniewicz, W. (1999) Epidemiology of MRSA. Infection 27, 1316.
  • [49]
    Kresken, M., Hafner, D., Rosenstiel, N. (1999) Development of antibiotic resistance in clinically relevant microorganisms in central Europe. Bundesgesundheitsbl.-Gesundheitsforsch.-Gesundheitsschutz 42, 1725.