• [1]
    Zumft, W.G. (1997) Cell biology and molecular basis of denitrification. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 61, 533616.
  • [2]
    Berks, B.C., Ferguson, S.J., Moir, J.W.B., Richardson, D.J. (1995) Enzymes and associated electron transport systems that catalyze the respiratory reduction of nitrogen oxides and oxyanions. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1232, 97173.
  • [3]
    Knowles, R. (1982) Denitrification. Microbiol. Rev. 46, 4370.
  • [4]
    Zumft, W.G. (1992) The denitrifying prokaryotes. In: The Prokaryotes (Balows, A., Trüper, H.G., Dworkin, M., Harder, W. and Schleifer, K.-H., Eds.), pp. 554–582. Springer Verlag, New York.
  • [5]
    Ye, R.W., Fries, M.R., Bezborodnikov, S.G., Averill, B.A., Tiedje, J.M. (1993) Characterization of the structural gene encoding a copper-containing nitrite reductase and homology of this gene to DNA of other denitrifiers. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59, 250254.
  • [6]
    Ward, B. (1995) Diversity of culturable denitrifying bacteria; limits of rDNA RFLP analysis and probes for the functional gene, nitrite reductase. Arch. Microbiol. 163, 167175.
  • [7]
    Braker, G., Fesefeldt, A., Witzel, K.-P. (1998) Development of PCR primer systems for amplification of nitrite reductase genes (nirK and nirS) to detect denitrifying bacteria in environmental samples. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64, 37693775.
  • [8]
    Smith, G.B., Tiedje, J.M. (1992) Isolation and characterization of a nitrite reductase gene and its use as a probe for denitrifying bacteria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58, 376384.
  • [9]
    Hallin, S., Lindgren, P.-E. (1999) PCR detection of genes encoding nitrite reductase in denitrifying bacteria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65, 16521657.
  • [10]
    Braker, G., Zhou, J., Wu, L., Devol, A.H., Tiedje, J.M. (2000) Nitrite reductase genes (nirK and nirS) as functional markers to investigate diversity of denitrifying bacteria in pacific northwest marine sediment communities. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66, 20962104.
  • [11]
    Ward, B., Cockcroft, A., Kilpatrick, K. (1993) Antibody and DNA probes for detection of nitrite reductase in seawater. J. Gen. Microbiol. 139, 22852293.
  • [12]
    Casciotti, K.L., Ward, B.B. (2001) Dissimilatory nitrite reductase genes from autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67, 22132221.
  • [13]
    Häggblom, M.M., Rivera, M.D., Young, L.Y. (1996) Anaerobic degradation of halogenated benzoic acids coupled to denitrification observed in a variety of sediment and soil samples. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 144, 213219.
  • [14]
    Häggblom, M.M., Rivera, M., Young, L.Y. (1993) Influence of alternative electron acceptors on the anaerobic biodegradability of chlorinated phenols and benzoic acids. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59, 11621167.
  • [15]
    Vargas, C., Song, B., Camps, M., Häggblom, M.M. (2000) Anaerobic degradation of fluorinated aromatic compounds. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 53, 342347.
  • [16]
    Song, B., Palleroni, N.J., Häggblom, M.M. (2000) Isolation and characterization of diverse halobenzoate-degrading denitrifying bacteria from soils and sediments. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66, 34463453.
  • [17]
    Song, B., Palleroni, N.J., Kerkhof, L.J., Häggblom, M.M. (2001) Characterization of halobenzoate degrading denitrifying bacteria belonging to the genera Azoarcus and Thauera and description of Thauera chlorobenzoica sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 51, 589602.
  • [18]
    Song, B., Kerkhof, L.J., Häggblom, M.M. (2001) Characterization of bacterial consortia capable of degrading 4-chlorobenzoate and 4-bromobenzoate under denitrifying conditions. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 213, 183188.
  • [19]
    Tschech, A., Fuchs, G. (1987) Anaerobic degradation of phenol by pure cultures of newly isolated denitrifying pseudomonads. Arch. Microbiol. 148, 213217.
  • [20]
    Song, B., Häggblom, M.M., Zhou, J., Tiedje, J.M., Palleroni, N.J. (1999) Taxonomic characterization of denitrifying bacteria that degrade aromatic compounds and description of Azoarcus toluvorans sp. nov. and Azoarcus toluclasticus sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 49, 11291140.
  • [21]
    Song, B., Young, L.Y., Palleroni, N.J. (1998) Identification of denitrifier strain T1 as Thauera aromatica and proposal for emendation of the genus Thauera definition. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 48, 889894.
  • [22]
    Kerkhof, L.J., Ward, B. (1993) Comparison of nucleic acid hybridization and fluorometry for measurement of the relationship between RNA/DNA ratio and growth rate in a marine bacterium. Appl. Environ. Microbiol 59, 13031309.
  • [23]
    Krishtein, J. and Ward, B.B. (1996) Genetic variation in the nitrite reductase gene of denitrifying bacteria. 96th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Abstract N143.
  • [24]
    Felsenstein, J. (1997) PHYLIP – phylogeny inference package (version 3.2). Cladistics 5, 164166.
  • [25]
    Dayhoff, M.O. (1972) Atlas of Protein Sequence and Structure. National Biomedical Research Foundation, Washington, DC.
  • [26]
    Saitou, N., Nei, M. (1987) The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. J. Mol. Evol. 4, 406425.
  • [27]
    Felsenstein, J. (1985) Confidence limits on phylogenies: an approach using the bootstrap. Evolution 39, 783791.
  • [28]
    Priemé, A., Braker, G., Tiedje, J.M. (2002) Diversity of nitrite reductase (nirK and nirS) gene fragments in forested upland and wetland soils. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68, 18931900.
  • [29]
    Boulanger, M.J., Murphy, M.E.P. (2002) Crystal structure of the soluble domain of the major anaerobically induced outer membrane protein (AniA) from pathogenic Neisseria: a new class of copper-containing nitrite reductases. J. Mol. Biol. 315, 11111127.
  • [30]
    Ichiki, H., Tanaka, Y., Mochizuki, K., Yoshimatsu, K., Sakurai, T., Fugiwara, T. (2001) Purification, characterization and genetic analysis of Cu-containing dissimilatory nitrite reductase from a denitrifying halophilic archaeon, Haloarcula marismortui. J. Bacteriol. 183, 41494156.
  • [31]
    Scholten, E., Lukow, T., Auling, G., Kroppenstedt, R.M., Rainey, F.A., Diekmann, H. (1999) Thauera mechernichensis sp. nov., an aerobic denitrifier from a leachate treatment plant. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 49, 10451051.