Editor: Rosa Margesin
Ciliate biogeography in Antarctic and Arctic freshwater ecosystems: endemism or global distribution of species?
Article first published online: 15 JAN 2007
FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Volume 59, Issue 2, pages 396–408, February 2007
How to Cite
Petz, W., Valbonesi, A., Schiftner, U., Quesada, A. and Cynan Ellis-Evans, J. (2007), Ciliate biogeography in Antarctic and Arctic freshwater ecosystems: endemism or global distribution of species?. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 59: 396–408. doi: 10.1111/j.1574-6941.2006.00259.x
- Issue published online: 15 JAN 2007
- Article first published online: 15 JAN 2007
- Received 15 May 2006; revised 29 October 2006; accepted 31 October 2006.First published online January 2007.
- polar regions
Ciliate diversity was investigated in situ in freshwater ecosystems of the maritime (South Shetland Islands, mainly Livingston Island, 63°S) and continental Antarctic (Victoria Land, 75°S), and the High Arctic (Svalbard, 79°N). In total, 334 species from 117 genera were identified in both polar regions, i.e. 210 spp. (98 genera) in the Arctic, 120 spp. (73 genera) in the maritime and 59 spp. (41 genera) in the continental Antarctic. Forty-four species (13% of all species) were common to both Arctic and Antarctic freshwater bodies and 19 spp. to both Antarctic areas (12% of all species). Many taxa are cosmopolitans but some, e.g. Stentor and Metopus spp., are not, and over 20% of the taxa found in any one of the three areas are new to science. Cluster analysis revealed that species similarity between different biotopes (soil, moss) within a study area was higher than between similar biotopes in different regions. Distinct differences in the species composition of freshwater and terrestrial communities indicate that most limnetic ciliates are not ubiquitously distributed. These observations and the low congruence in species composition between both polar areas, within Antarctica and between high- and temperate-latitude water bodies, respectively, suggest that long-distance dispersal of limnetic ciliates is restricted and that some species have a limited geographical distribution.