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Keywords:

  • phylogenetic;
  • microbial communities;
  • intestine;
  • dog;
  • inflammatory bowel disease;
  • IBD

Abstract

An association between luminal commensal bacteria and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been suggested in humans, but studies investigating the intestinal microbial communities of dogs with IBD have not been published. The aim of this study was to characterize differences of the small intestinal microbial communities between dogs with IBD and healthy control dogs. Duodenal brush cytology samples were endoscopically collected from 10 dogs with IBD and nine healthy control dogs. DNA was extracted and 16S rRNA gene was amplified using universal bacterial primers. Constructed 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were compared between groups. From a total of 1240 selected clones, 156 unique 16S rRNA gene sequences were identified, belonging to six phyla: Firmicutes (53.4%), Proteobacteria (28.4%), Bacteroidetes (7.0%), Spirochaetes (5.2%), Fusobacteria (3.4%), Actinobacteria (1.1%), and Incertae sedis (1.5%). Species richness was significantly lower in the IBD group (P=0.038). Principal component analysis indicated that the small intestinal microbial communities of IBD and control dogs are composed of distinct microbial communities. The most profound difference involved enrichment of the IBD dogs with members of the Enterobacteriaceae family. However, differences involving members of other families, such as Clostridiaceae, Bacteroidetes and Spirochaetes, were also identified. In conclusion, canine IBD is associated with altered duodenal microbial communities compared with healthy controls.