SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Ashelford KE, Chuzhanova NA, Fry JC, Jones AJ & Weightman AJ (2006) New screening software shows that most recent large 16S rRNA gene clone libraries contain chimeras. Appl Environ Microb 72: 57345741.
  • Bailey RW & Clarke RTJ (1963) Carbohydrase activity of rumen Entodinium species from sheep on a starch-free diet. Nature 198: 787.
  • Bauchop T (1979) The rumen ciliate Epidinium in primary degradation of plant tissues. Appl Environ Microb 37: 12171223.
  • Bauchop T & Clarke RTJ (1976) Attachment of the ciliate Epidinium Crawley to plant fragments in the sheep rumen. Appl Environ Microb 32: 417422.
  • Bonhomme A (1990) Rumen ciliates: their metabolism and relationships with bacteria and their hosts. Anim Feed Sci Tech 30: 203266.
  • Chagan I, Tokura M, Jouany JP & Ushida K (1999) Detection of methanogenic archaea associated with rumen ciliate protozoa. J Gen Appl Microbiol 45: 305308.
  • Clarke RTJ (1964) Ciliates of the rumen of domestic cattle (Bos taurus L.). New Zeal J Agr Res 7: 248257.
  • Coleman GS (1986) The metabolism of rumen ciliate protozoa. FEMS Microbiol Lett 39: 321344.
  • Coleman GS (1989) The Role of Protozoa and Fungi in Ruminant Digestion. Penambul Books, Armidale.
  • de la Fuente G, Skirnisson K & Dehority BA (2006) Rumen ciliate fauna of Icelandic cattle, sheep, goats and reindeer. Zootaxa 1377: 4760.
  • de la Fuente G, Belanche A, Abecia L, Dehority BA & Fondevila M (2009) Rumen protozoal diversity in the Spanish ibex (Capra pyrenaica hispanica) as compared with domestic goats (Capra hircus). Eur J Protistol 45: 112120.
  • Eadie JM (1962) Inter-relationships between certain rumen ciliate protozoa. J Gen Microbiol 29: 579588.
  • Eadie JM (1967) Studies on the ecology of certain rumen ciliate protozoa. J Gen Microbiol 49: 175194.
  • Edwards JE, McEwan NR, Travis AJ & Wallace RJ (2004) 16S rDNA library-based analysis of ruminal bacterial diversity. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 86: 263281.
  • Ellis JE, Williams AG & Lloyd D (1989) Oxygen consumption by ruminal microorganisms: protozoal and bacterial contributions. Appl Environ Microb 55: 25832587.
  • Elwood HJ, Olsen GJ, Sogin ML, Elwood HJ, Olsen GJ & Sogin ML (1985) The small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences from the hypotrichous ciliates Oxytricha nova and Stylonychia pustulata. Mol Biol Evol 2: 399410.
  • Felsenstein J (1981) Evolutionary trees from DNA sequences: a maximum likelihood approach. J Mol Evol 17: 368376.
  • Finlay BJ, Esteban G, Clarke KJ, Williams AG, Embley TM & Hirt RP (1994) Some rumen ciliates have endosymbiotic methanogens. FEMS Microbiol Lett 117: 157161.
  • Hegarty RS (1999) Reducing rumen methane emissions through elimination of rumen protozoa. Aust J Agr Res 50: 13211327.
  • Hofmann RR (1989) Evolutionary steps of ecophysiological adaptation and diversification of ruminants: a comparative view of their digestive system. Oecologia 78: 443457.
  • Irbis C & Ushida K (2004) Detection of methanogens and proteobacteria from a single cell of rumen ciliate protozoa. J Gen Appl Microbiol 50: 203212.
  • Janse I, Bok J & Zwart G (2004) A simple remedy against artifactual double bands in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. J Microbiol Meth 57: 279281.
  • Janssen PH & Kirs M (2008) Structure of the archaeal community of the rumen. Appl Environ Microb 74: 36193625.
  • Kamra DN (2005) Rumen microbial ecosystem. Curr Sci 89: 124135.
  • Kowalchuk GA, Stephen JR, De Boer W, Prosser JI, Embley TM & Woldendorp JW (1997) Analysis of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria of the beta-subdivision of the class Proteobacteria in coastal sand dunes by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequencing of PCR-amplified 16S ribosomal DNA fragments. Appl Environ Microb 63: 14891497.
  • Kreuzer M (1986) Methodology and application of defaunation in the growing ruminant. ZBL Vet Med A 33: 721745.
  • Lindmark DG & Müller M (1973) Hydrogenosome, a cytoplasmic organelle of the anaerobic flagellate Tritrichomonas foetus, and its role in pyruvate metabolism. J Biol Chem 248: 77247728.
  • Lloyd D, Williams AG, Amann R, Hayes AJ, Durrant L & Ralphs JR (1996) Intracellular prokaryotes in rumen ciliate protozoa: detection by confocal laser scanning microscopy after in situ hybridization with fluorescent 16S rRNA probes. Eur J Protistol 32: 523531.
  • Ludwig W, Bauer SH, Bauer M, Held I, Kirchhof G, Schulze R, Huber I, Spring S, Hartmann A & Schleifer KH (1997) Detection and in situ identification of representatives of a widely distributed new bacterial phylum. FEMS Microbiol Lett 153: 181190.
  • Ludwig W, Strunk O, Westram R et al. (2004) ARB: a software environment for sequence data. Nucleic Acids Res 32: 13631371.
  • Lueders T, Manefield M & Friedrich MW (2004) Enhanced sensitivity of DNA- and rRNA-based stable isotope probing by fractionation and quantitative analysis of isopycnic centrifugation gradients. Environ Microbiol 6: 7378.
  • McAllister TA & Newbold CJ (2008) Redirecting rumen fermentation to reduce methanogenesis. Aust J Exp Agr 48: 713.
  • Muyzer G, Teske A, Wirsen CO & Jannasch HW (1995) Phylogenetic relationships of Thiomicrospira species and their identification in deep-sea hydrothermal vent samples by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rDNA fragments. Arch Microbiol 164: 165172.
  • Newbold CJ, Lassalas B & Jouany JP (1995) The importance of methanogens associated with ciliate protozoa in ruminal methane production in vitro. Lett Appl Microbiol 21: 230234.
  • Nollet L, Demeyer D & Verstraete W (1997) Effect of 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid and Peptostreptococcus productus ATCC 35244 addition on stimulation of reductive acetogenesis in the ruminal ecosystem by selective inhibition of methanogenesis. Appl Environ Microb 63: 194200.
  • Oxford AE (1958) Bloat in cattle. IX. Some observations on the culture of the cattle rumen ciliate Epidinium ecaudatum Crawley occurring in quantity in cows fed on red clover (Trifolium pratense L.). New Zeal J Agr Res 1: 809824.
  • Payne RW, Murray DA, Harding SA, Baird DB & Soutar DM (2007) GenStat for Windows (12th Edition) Introduction. VSN International, Hemel Hempstead.
  • Purser DB & Moir RJ (1966) Rumen volume as a factor involved in individual sheep differences. J Anim Sci 25: 509515.
  • Qiu X, Wu L, Huang H, McDonel PE, Palumbo AV, Tiedje JM & Zhou J (2001) Evaluation of PCR-generated chimeras, mutations, and heteroduplexes with 16S rRNA gene-based cloning. Appl Environ Microb 67: 880887.
  • Ramirez-Restrepo CA, Barry TN, Marriner A, Lopez-Villalobos N, McWilliam EL, Lassey KR & Clark H (2010) Effects of grazing willow fodder blocks upon methane production and blood composition in young sheep. Anim Feed Sci Tech 155: 3343.
  • Regensbogenova M, Pristas P, Javorsky P, Moon-van der Staay SY, van der Staay GW, Hackstein JH, Newbold CJ & McEwan NR (2004) Assessment of ciliates in the sheep rumen by DGGE. Lett Appl Microbiol 39: 144147.
  • Rhind SM, Archer ZA & Adam CL (2002) Seasonality of food intake in ruminants: recent developments in understanding. Nutr Res Rev 15: 4366.
  • Scheehle E, Godwin D & Ottinger D (2006) Global anthropogenic non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions: 1990–2020. Version: revised June 2006. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Climate Change Division, Office of Atmospheric Programs.
  • Shi PJ, Meng K, Zhou ZG, Wang YR, Diao QY & Yao B (2008) The host species affects the microbial community in the goat rumen. Lett Appl Microbiol 46: 132135.
  • Smith P, Martino D, Cai Z et al. (2007) Agriculture. In Climate Change: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Stubner S (2004) Quantification of Gram-negative sulphate-reducing bacteria in rice field soil by 16S rRNA gene-targeted real-time PCR. J Microbiol Meth 57: 219230.
  • Stumm CK, Gijzen HJ & Vogels GD (1982) Association of methanogenic bacteria with ovine rumen ciliates. Brit J Nutr 47: 9599.
  • Sundset MA, Edwards JE, Cheng YF, Senosiain RS, Fraile MN, Northwood KS, Praesteng KE, Glad T, Mathiesen SD & Wright AD (2009) Molecular diversity of the rumen microbiome of norwegian reindeer on natural summer pasture. Microb Ecol 57: 335348.
  • Sylvester JT, Karnati SKR, Yu Z, Morrison M & Firkins JL (2004) Development of an assay to quantify rumen ciliate protozoal biomass in cows using real-time PCR. J Nutr 134: 33783384.
  • Tokura M, Ushida K, Miyazaki K & Kojima Y (1997) Methanogens associated with rumen ciliates. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 22: 137143.
  • Towne G, Nagaraja TG, Owensby C & Harmon D (1986) Ruminal evacuation's effect on microbial activity and ruminal function. J Anim Sci 62: 783788.
  • Towne G, Nagaraja TG & Kemp KK (1988) Ruminal ciliated protozoa in bison. Appl Environ Microb 54: 27332736.
  • Ushida K & Jouany JP (1996) Methane production associated with rumen-ciliated protozoa and its effect on protozoan activity. Lett Appl Microbiol 23: 129132.
  • Ushida K, Newbold CJ, Fonty G, Morvan B & Jouany JP (1995) Interspecies hydrogen transfer between the rumen ciliate Polyplastron multivesiculatum and methanogenic bacteria. Proc Jpn Soc Rumen Metabol Physiol 6: 6163.
  • Vogels GD, Hoppe WF & Stumm CK (1980) Association of methanogenic bacteria with rumen ciliates. Appl Environ Microb 40: 608612.
  • Williams AG & Coleman GS (1997) The rumen protozoa. The Rumen Microbial Ecosystem, 2nd edn (HobsonPN & StewartCS, eds), pp. 73139. Blackie Academic & Professional, London.