Editor: Alfons Stams
Microbial diversity in nonsulfur, sulfur and iron geothermal steam vents
Version of Record online: 1 FEB 2011
© 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved
FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Volume 76, Issue 1, pages 74–88, April 2011
How to Cite
Benson, C. A., Bizzoco, R. W., Lipson, D. A. and Kelley, S. T. (2011), Microbial diversity in nonsulfur, sulfur and iron geothermal steam vents. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 76: 74–88. doi: 10.1111/j.1574-6941.2011.01047.x
- Issue online: 7 MAR 2011
- Version of Record online: 1 FEB 2011
- Accepted manuscript online: 11 JAN 2011 09:03AM EST
- Received 24 June 2010; revised 26 October 2010; accepted 3 December 2010., Final version published online 1 February 2011.
- microbial community;
Fumaroles, commonly called steam vents, are ubiquitous features of geothermal habitats. Recent studies have discovered microorganisms in condensed fumarole steam, but fumarole deposits have proven refractory to DNA isolation. In this study, we report the development of novel DNA isolation approaches for fumarole deposit microbial community analysis. Deposit samples were collected from steam vents and caves in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Yellowstone National Park and Lassen Volcanic National Park. Samples were analyzed by X-ray microanalysis and classified as nonsulfur, sulfur or iron-dominated steam deposits. We experienced considerable difficulty in obtaining high-yield, high-quality DNA for cloning: only half of all the samples ultimately yielded sequences. Analysis of archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that sulfur steam deposits were dominated by Sulfolobus and Acidianus, while nonsulfur deposits contained mainly unknown Crenarchaeota. Several of these novel Crenarchaeota lineages were related to chemoautotrophic ammonia oxidizers, indicating that fumaroles represent a putative habitat for ammonia-oxidizing Archaea. We also generated archaeal and bacterial enrichment cultures from the majority of the deposits and isolated members of the Sulfolobales. Our results provide the first evidence of Archaea in geothermal steam deposits and show that fumaroles harbor diverse and novel microbial lineages.