The use of commercial wine yeast strains as starters has been grown extensively over the past three decades. Wine yeasts are annually released in winery environments; however, little is known about the fate of these strains in the vineyard. To evaluate the industrial starter yeasts' ability to survive in nature and become part of the natural microbiota of musts, commercial yeast was disseminated voluntarily in an experimental vineyard in the Madrid region (Spain). A large sampling plan was devised over 3 years, including samples of grapes, leaves, bark and soil. The disseminated yeast was well represented in the vineyard during the first 8 months. After 2 years, the commercial yeast strain had not survived in the sprayed plants, but a residual population was found in plants situated 50 m east of the sprayed area. After 3 years, commercial yeast disseminated was not found in the sampled vineyard. Grapes and soil showed the highest number of yeasts isolated in the vegetative period, the bark being the main natural reservoir during the resting stages. The result of analysis of population variations from year to year indicated that permanent implantation of commercial strain (K1M) in the vineyard did not occur and its presence was limited in time.