• 1
    Smibert, R.M. (1978) The genus Campylobacter. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 32, 673709.
  • 2
    Morisson, V.A., Lloyd, B.K., Chia, J.K.S. and Tuazon, C.U (1990) Cardiovascular and bacteremic manifestations of Campylobacter fetus infection: case report and review. Rev. Infect. Dis. 12, 387392.
  • 3
    Penner, J.L. (1991) Campylobacter, Helicobacter, and related spiral bacteria. In: Manual of Clinical Microbiology (Balows, A., Hausler, W.J., Herrmann, K.L., Isenberg, H.D. and Shadomy, H.J., Eds.), pp. 402–409. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
  • 4
    Devlin, H.R. and McIntyre, L. (1983) Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus in homosexual males. J. Clin. Microbiol. 18, 9991000.
  • 5
    Edmonds, P., Patton, C.M., Barrett, T.J., Morris, G.K., Steigerwalt, A.G. and Brenner, D.J (1985) Biochemical and genetic characteristics of atypical Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus strains isolated from humans in the United States. J. Clin. Microbiol. 21, 936940.
  • 6
    Chevrier, D., Larzul, D., Mégraud, F. and Guesdon, J.-L (1989) Identification and classification of Campylobacter strains by using nonradioactive DNA probes. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27, 321326.
  • 7
    Ng, L.K., Stiles, M.E. and Taylor, D.E (1987) Classification of Campylobacter strains using DNA probes. Mol. Cell. Probes 1, 233243.
  • 8
    Gebhart, C.J., Ward, G.E. and Murtaugh, M.P (1989) Species-specific cloned DNA probes for the identification of Campylobacter hyointestinalis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27, 27172723.
  • 9
    Korolik, V., Coloe, P.J. and Krishnapillai, V (1988) A specific DNA probe for the identification of Campylobacter jejuni. J. Gen. Microbiol. 134, 521529.
  • 10
    Picken, R.N., Wang, Z. and Yang, H.L (1987) Molecular cloning of a species-specific DNA probe for Campylobacter jejuni. Mol. Cell. Probes 1, 245259.
  • 11
    Eyers, M., Chapelle, S. and Van Camp, G (1993) Discrimination among thermophilic Campylobacter species by polymerase chain reaction amplification of 23S rRNA gene fragments. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31, 33403343.
  • 12
    Stonnet, V. and Guesdon, J.-L. (1993) Campylobacter jejuni: Specific oligonucleotides and DNA probes for use in polymerase chain reaction-based diagnosis. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 7, 337344.
  • 13
    Blom, K., Patton, C.M., Nicholson, M.A. and Swaminathan, B (1995) Identification of Campylobacter fetus by PCR-DNA probe method. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33, 13601362.
  • 14
    Eaglesome, M.D., Sampath, M.I. and Garcia, M.M (1995) A detection assay for Campylobacter fetus in bovine semen by restriction analysis of PCR amplified DNA. Vet. Res. Commun. 19, 253263.
  • 15
    Linton, D., Owen, R.J. and Stanley, J (1996) Rapid identification by PCR of the genus Campylobacter and of five Campylobacter species enteropathogenic for man and animals. Res. Microbiol. 147, 707718.
  • 16
    Wesley, I.V., Wesley, R.D., Cardella, M., Dewhirst, F.E. and Paster, B.J (1991) Oligodeoxynucleotide probes for Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter hyointestinalis based on 16S rRNA sequence. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29, 18121817.
  • 17
    Denes, A.S., Lutze-Wallace, C.L., Cormier, M.L. and Garcia, M.M (1997) DNA fingerprinting of Campylobacter fetus using cloned constructs of ribosomal RNA and surface array protein genes. Vet. Microbiol. 54, 185193.
  • 18
    Garcia, M.M., Lutze-Wallace, C.L., Denes, A.S., Eaglesome, M.D., Holst, E. and Blaser, M.J (1995) Protein shift and antigenic variation in the S-layer of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis during bovine infection accompanied by genomic rearrangement of sapA homologs. J. Bacteriol. 177, 19761980.
  • 19
    Tummuru, M.K. and Blaser, M.J. (1993) Rearrangement of sap A homologs with conserved and variable regions in Campylobacter fetus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90, 72657269.
  • 20
    Dworkin, J., Tummuru, M.K. and Blaser, M.J (1995) Segmental conservation of sapA sequences in type B Campylobacter fetus cells. J. Biol. Chem. 270, 1509315101.
  • 21
    Fennell, C.L., Totten, P.A., Queen, T.C., Patton, D.L., Holmes, K.K. and Stamm, W.E (1984) Characterization of Campylobacter-like organisms isolated from homosexual men. J. Infect. Dis. 149, 5866.
  • 22
    Birnboin, H. and Doly, S. (1979) A rapid alkaline extraction procedure for screening recombinant plasmid DNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 7, 1513.
  • 23
    Southern, E.M. (1975) Detection of specific sequences among DNA fragments separated by gel electrophoresis. J. Mol. Biol. 98, 503517.
  • 24
    Grimont, F., Chevrier, D., Grimont, P.A.D., Lefevre, M. and Guesdon, J.L (1989) Acetylaminofluorene-labelled ribosomal RNA for use in molecular epidemiology and taxonomy. Res. Microbiol. 140, 447454.
  • 25
    Dworkin, J., Tummuru, M.K. and Blaser, M.J (1995) A lipopolysaccharide-binding domain of the Campylobacter fetus S-layer protein resides within the conserved N terminus of a family of silent and divergent homologs. J. Bacteriol. 177, 17341741.
  • 26
    Blaser, M.J. and Gotschlich, E.C. (1990) Surface array protein of Campylobacter fetus. Cloning and gene structure. J. Biol. Chem. 265, 1452914535.
  • 27
    Harvey, S.M. (1980) Hippurate hydrolysis by Campylobacter fetus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 11, 435437.
  • 28
    Klein, B.S., Vergeront, J.M., Blaser, M.J., Edmonds, P., Brenner, D.J., Janssen, D. and Davis, J.P (1986) Campylobacter infection associated with raw milk: an outbreak of gastroenteritis due to Campylobacter jejuni and thermotolerant Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 255, 361364.
  • 29
    Dworkin, J. and Blaser, M.J. (1997) Nested DNA inversion as a paradigm of programmed gene rearrangement. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 985990.
  • 30
    Dworkin, J. and Blaser, M.J. (1996) Generation of Campylobacter fetus S-layer protein diversity utilizes a single promoter on an invertible DNA segment. Mol. Microbiol. 19, 12411253.
  • 31
    Tummuru, M.K. and Blaser, M.J. (1992) Characterization of the Campylobacter fetus sapA promoter: Evidence that the sapA promoter is deleted in spontaneous mutant strains. J. Bacteriol. 174, 59165922.
  • 32
    Fujita, M., Moriya, T., Fujimoto, S., Hara, N. and Amako, K (1997) A deletion in the sapA homologue cluster is responsible for the loss of the S-layer in Campylobacter fetus strain TK. Arch. Microbiol. 167, 196201.
  • 33
    Fujita, M., Morooka, T., Fujimoto, S., Moriya, T. and Amako, K (1995) Southern blotting analyses of strains of Campylobacter fetus using the conserved region of sapA. Arch. Microbiol. 164, 444447.