Cereulide is the causative toxin of the emetic type of food-borne illness caused by Bacillus cereus. This toxin was previously shown to be associated with fulminant liver failure in a human case. Mice were injected i.p. with synthetic cereulide and the development of histopathological changes was examined. Hepatocytes showed mitochondrial swelling with loss of cristae, and dose-dependent increase of small fatty droplets. These microsteatotic hepatocytes were distributed mainly in the pericentral area. At higher cereulide doses, massive degeneration of hepatocytes occurred. The serum values of hepatic enzymes were highest on days 2–3 after the inoculation of cereulide, and rapidly decreased thereafter. General recovery from the pathological changes and regeneration of hepatocytes was observed after 4 weeks.