• [1]
    Åkesson, P., Schmidt, K.-H., Cooney, J., Björck, L. (1994) M1 and protein H: IgGFc- and albumin-binding streptococcal surface proteins encoded by adjacent genes. Biochem. J. 300, 877886.
  • [2]
    Baird, R.W., Bronze, M.S., Kraus, W., Hill, H.R., Veasey, L.G., Dale, J.B. (1991) Epitopes of group A streptococcal M protein shared with antigens of articular cartilage and synovium. J. Immunol. 146, 31323137.
  • [3]
    Ben Nasr, A., Wistedt, A., Ringdahl, U., Sjöbring, U. (1994) Streptokinase activates plasminogen bound to human group C and G streptococci through M-like proteins. Eur. J. Biochem. 222, 267276.
  • [4]
    Bessen, D.E. and Hollingshead, S.K. (1995) Horizontal transfer and mosaic-like emm gene structures in group A streptococci. In: Genetics of Streptococci, Enterococci and Lactococci (Ferretti, J.J., Gilmore, M.S., Klaenhammer, T.R., and Brown, F. Eds.), Development of Biological Standards, Vol. 85, pp. 169–173. Karger, Basel.
  • [5]
    Bisno, A.L., Collins, C.M., Turner, J.C. (1996) M proteins of group C streptococci isolated from patients with acute pharyngitis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34, 25112515.
  • [6]
    Carlsson-Wistedt, A., Ringdahl, U., Müller-Esterl, W., Sjöbring, U. (1995) Identification of a plasminogen-binding motif in PAM, a bacterial surface protein. Mol. Microbiol. 18, 569578.
  • [7]
    Cedervall, T., Akesson, P., Stenberg, L., Hermann, A., Akerström, B. (1995) Allosteric and temperature effects on the plasma protein binding by streptococcal M protein family members. Scand. J. Immunol. 42, 433441.
  • [8]
    Efstratiou, A., Teare, E.L., McGhie, D., Colman, G. (1989) The presence of M proteins in outbreak strains of Streptococcus equisimilis T-type 204. J. Infect. 19, 105111.
  • [9]
    Fischetti, V.A., Landau, G.M., Schmidt, J.P., Sellers, P. (1993) Identifying periodic occurrences of a template with applications to protein structure. Inf. Proc. Lett. 45, 1118.
  • [10]
    Fox, K., Turner, J., Fox, A. (1993) Role of beta-hemolytic group C streptococci in pharyngitis: Incidence and biochemical characteristics of Streptococcus equisimilis and Streptococcus anginosis in patients and healthy controls. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31, 804807.
  • [11]
    Geyer, A. and Schmidt, K.-H. (1999) Genetic organisation of the M protein region in groups C and G streptococci: Two types of a multigene regulator (mgrC) like region. Mol. Gen. Genet. (in press).
  • [12]
    Gubbe, K., Misselwitz, R., Welfle, K., Reichardt, W., Schmidt, K.-H., Welfle, H. (1997) C-repeats of streptococcal M protein achieve the human serum albumin binding ability by flanking regions which stabilize the coiled-coil conformation. Biochemistry 36, 81078113.
  • [13]
    Henderson, C.A., Highet, A.S. (1988) Acute psoriasis associated with Lancefield group C and G cutaneous streptococcal infections. Br. J. Dermatol. 118, 559562.
  • [14]
    Kehoe, M.A. (1994) Cell-wall-associated proteins in gram positive bacteria. In: Bacterial Cell Wall (Ghuysen J.-M., and Hakenbeck, R. Eds.) New Comprehensive Biochemistry, Vol. 27, pp. 217–261. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam.
  • [15]
    Keiser, P., Campbell, W. (1992) ’Toxic strep syndrome’ associated with group C Streptococcus. Arch. Intern. Med. 152, 882884.
  • [16]
    Kraus, W., Dale, J.B., Beachey, E.H. (1990) Identification of an epitope of type 1 streptococcal M protein that is shared with a 43-kDa protein of human myocardium and renal glomeruli. J. Immunol. 145, 40894093.
  • [17]
    Louvard, D., Maroux, S., Dannier, Ch., Pasnuelle, P. (1975) Topological studies on the hydrolases bound to the intestinal brush border membrane. I. Solubilization by papain and triton X-100. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 375, 236248.
  • [18]
    McFadden, J., Valdimarsson, H., Fry, L. (1991) Cross-reactivity between streptococcal M surface antigen and human skin. Br. J. Dermatol. 125, 443447.
  • [19]
    McLachlan, A.D., Stewart, M. (1975) Tropomyosin coiled-coil interactions: evidence for an unstaggered structure. J. Mol. Biol. 98, 293304.
  • [20]
    Miller, C.W., Prescott, J.F., Mathews, K.A., Betschel, S.D., Yager, J.A., Guru, V., DeWinter, L., Low, D.E. (1996) Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome in dogs. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 209, 14211426.
  • [21]
    Natoli, S., Fimiani, C., Faglieri, N., Laurenzi, L., Calamaro, A., Frasca, A.M., Arcuri, E. (1996) Toxic shock syndrome due to group C streptococci. A case report. Intens. Care Med. 22, 985989.
  • [22]
    Nilson, B.H.K., Frick, I.M., Akesson, P., Forsen, S., Björck, L., Akerström, B., Wikström, M. (1995) Structure and stability of protein H and M1 protein from Streptococcus pyogenes. Implications for other surface proteins of gram-positive bacteria. Biochemistry 34, 1368813698.
  • [23]
    Podbielski, A., Melzer, B., Lütticken, R. (1991) Application of the polymerase chain reaction to study the M-protein(-like) gene family in β-hemolytic streptococci. Med. Microbiol. Immunol. 180, 213227.
  • [24]
    Quinn, A., Ward, K., Fischetti, V.A., Hemric, M., Cunnigham, M.W. (1998) Immunological relationship between the class I epitope of streptococcal M protein and myosin. Infect. Immun. 66, 44184424.
  • [25]
    Reichardt, W., Gubbe, K. and Schmidt, K.-H. (1995) M3-protein with close sequence homology to M 12-protein binds fibrinogen, albumin, fibronectin but not to any subclass of IgG. Localisation of binding regions. In: Genetics of Streptococci, Enterococci and Lactococci. (Ferretti, J.J., Gilmore, M.S., Klaenhammer, T.R. and Brown, F., Eds.), Development of Biological Standards, Vol. 85, pp. 179–182. Karger, Basel.
  • [26]
    Roth, S., Andrassy, K., Schmidt, K.-H., Günther, E., Ritz, E. (1999) Febrile lady with acute renal failure and desquamatic erythema. Am. J. Kidney Dis. 34, 150154.
  • [27]
    Rouff, K.L. (1992) Group C streptococci: A current view. Clin. Infect. Dis. 15, 175176.
  • [28]
    Sambrook, J., Fritsch, E.F. and Maniatis, T. (1989) Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY.
  • [29]
    Schmidt, K.-H., Gerlach, D., Wiesner, J., Reichardt, W., Ozegowski, J.-H., Köhler, W. (1993) Susceptibility of chicken embryos to group A streptococci: Correlation with fibrinogen binding. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 7, 231240.
  • [30]
    Schmidt, K.-H., Gerlach, D., Wollweber, L., Reichardt, W., Mann, K.H., Ozegowski, J.H., Fleischer, B. (1995) Mitogenenicity of M5 protein extracted from Streptococcus pyogenes cells is due to streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin C and mitogenic factor MF. Infect. Immun. 63, 45694575.
  • [31]
    Schmidt, K.-H., Kühnemund, O., Wadström, T., Köhler, W. (1987) Binding of fibrinogen fragment D to group A streptococci causes strain dependent decrease in cell surface hydrophobicity as measured by the salt aggregation test (SAT) and cell clumping in polyethylen glycol. Zbl. Bakt. 264, 185195.
  • [32]
    Schmidt, K.-H., Mann, K., Cooney, J., Köhler, W. (1993) Multiple binding of type 3 streptococcal M protein to human fibrinogen, albumin and fibronectin. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 7, 135144.
  • [33]
    Schmidt, K.-H., Podbielski, A., Raeder, R., Boyle, M.D.P. (1997) Inactivation of single genes within the virulence regulation of an M2 group A streptococcal isolate results in differences in virulence for chicken embryos and for mice. Microb. Pathogen. 23, 347355.
  • [34]
    Schmidt, K.-H., Wadström, T. (1990) A secreted receptor related to M protein of Streptococcus pyogenes binds to fibrinogen, IgG and albumin. Zbl. Bakt. 273, 216228.
  • [35]
    Schnitzler, N., Podbielski, A., Baumgarten, G., Mignon, M., Kaufhold, A. (1995) M or M-like protein gene polymorphism in human group G streptococci. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33, 356363.
  • [36]
    Sigmundsdottier, H., Sigurgeirsson, B., Troye-Blomberg, M., Goods, M.F., Valdimarsson, H., Jonsdottir, I. (1997) Circulating T cells of patients with acute psoriasis respond to streptococcal M-peptides sharing sequences with human epidermal keratins. Scand. J. Immunol. 45, 688697.
  • [37]
    Sriprakash, K.S., Hartas, J. (1996) Lateral genetic transfers between group A and G streptococci for M-like genes are ongoing. Microb. Pathogen. 20, 275285.
  • [38]
    Tijssen, P. (1985) Practice and theory of enzyme immunoassays. In: Laboratory Technics in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (Burdon, R.H. and van Knippenberg, R.H., Eds.). Elsevier, Amsterdam.
  • [39]
    Turner, J.C., Fox, A., Fox, K., Addy, C., Garrison, C.Z., Herron, B., Brunson, C., Betcher, G. (1993) Role of group C beta-hemolytic streptococci in pharyngitis: Epidemiologic study of clinical features associated with isolation of group C streptococci. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31, 808811.
  • [40]
    Vuento, M., Vaheri, A. (1979) Purification of fibronectin from human plasma by affinity chromatography under non-denaturing conditions. Biochem. J. 183, 331337.
  • [41]
    Wagner, J.G., Schlievert, P.M., Assimacopoulos, A.P., Stoehr, J.A., Carson, P.J., Komadina, P. (1996) Acute group G streptococcal myositis associated with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome: Case report and review. Clin. Infect. Dis. 23, 11591161.
  • [42]
    Wagner, B., Schmidt, K.-H., Wagner, M., Köhler, W. (1986) Albumin bound to the surface of M protein positive streptococci increased their phagocytosis by human polymorphonuclear leucocytes in the absence of complement and bactericidal antibodies. Zbl. Bakt. 261, 432446.
  • [43]
    Whitnack, E., Beachey, E.H. (1982) Antiopsonic activity of fibrinogen bound to M protein on the surface of group A streptococci. J. Clin. Invest. 69, 10421045.
  • [44]
    Yatohgo, T., Izumi, M., Kashiwagi, H., Hayashi, M. (1988) Novel purification of vitronectin from human plasma by heparin affinity chromatography. Cell. Struct. Func. 13, 281292.