We studied the development of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice and the allergic symptoms and blood patterns of healthy volunteers during the cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) pollen season in Japan following oral administration of a new synbiotic, Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei together with dextran. The combination of L. casei subsp. casei and dextran significantly decreased clinical skin severity scores and total immunoglobulin E levels in sera of NC/Nga mice that had developed picryl chloride-induced and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus crude extract-swabbed atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions. During the most common Japanese cedar pollen season, synbiotic L. casei subsp. casei and dextran in humans led to no significant changes in total nasal and ocular symptom scores, in the levels of cedar pollen-specific immunoglobulin E, interferon-γ and thymus and activation regulated chemokine or in the number of eosinophils in sera, whereas the placebo group showed a tendency for increased levels of cedar pollen-specific immunoglobulin E, thymus and activation regulated chemokine and number of eosinophils, and a decrease in interferon-γ levels. Thus, the oral administration of synbiotic L. casei subsp. casei together with dextran appears to be an effective supplement for the prevention and treatment of allergic reactions.