SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Abbasi I, Branzburg A, Campos-Ponce M, Abdel Hafez SK, Raoul F, Craig PS & Hamburger J (2003) Copro-diagnosis of Echinococcus granulosus infection in dogs by amplification of a newly identified repeated DNA sequence. Am J Trop Med Hyg 69: 324330.
  • Agorio A, Chalar C, Cardozo S & Salinas G (2003) Alternative mRNAs arising from trans-splicing code for mitochondrial and cytosolic variants of Echinococcus granulosus thioredoxin Glutathione reductase. J Biol Chem 278: 1292012928.
  • Aguero F, Noe G, Hellman U, Repetto Y, Zaha A & Cazzulo JJ (2004) Purification, cloning, and expression of the mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (mMDH) from protoscolices of Echinococcus granulosus. Mol Biochem Parasitol 137: 207214.
  • Akira I (1997) Serodiagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis: detection of antibody against EM18 in patients and rodents. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 28: 117124.
  • Al-Sherbiny MM, Farrag AA, Fayad MH, Makled MK, Tawfeek GM & Ali NM (2004) Application and assessment of a dipstick assay in the diagnosis of hydatidosis and trichinosis. Parasitol Res 93: 8795.
  • Alvite G, Di Pietro SM, Santome JA, Ehrlich R & Esteves A (2001) Binding properties of Echinococcus granulosus fatty acid binding protein. Biochim Biophys Acta 1533: 293302.
  • Andrade MA, Siles-Lucas M, Espinoza E, Perez Arellano JL, Gottstein B & Muro A (2004) Echinococcus multilocularis laminated-layer components and the E14t 14–3–3 recombinant protein decrease NO production by activated rat macrophages in vitro. Nitric Oxide 10: 150155.
  • Arend AC, Zaha A, Ayala FJ & Haag KL (2004) The Echinococcus granulosus antigen B shows a high degree of genetic variability. Exp Parasitol 108: 7680.
  • Aumuller E, Schramm G, Gronow A, Brehm K, Gibbs BF, Doenhoff MJ & Haas H (2004) Echinococcus multilocularis metacestode extract triggers human basophils to release interleukin-4. Parasite Immunol 26: 387395.
  • Bacciarini LN, Gottstein B, Pagan O, Rehmann P & Grone A (2004) Hepatic alveolar echinococcosis in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Vet Pathol 41: 229234.
  • Benito A & Carmena D (2005) Double-antibody sandwich ELISA using biotinylated antibodies for the detection of Echinococcus granulosus coproantigens in dogs. Acta Trop 95: 915.
  • Brehm K, Wolf M, Beland H, Kroner A & Frosch M (2003) Analysis of differential gene expression in Echinococcus multilocularis larval stages by means of spliced leader differential display. Int J Parasitol 33: 11451159.
  • Budke CM, Jiamin Q, Craig PS & Torgerson PR (2005) Modeling the transmission of Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs for a high endemic region of the Tibetan plateau. Int J Parasitol 35: 163170.
  • Buishi IE, Njoroge EM, Bouamra O & Craig PS (2005) Canine echinococcosis in northwest Libya: assessment of coproantigen ELISA, and a survey of infection with analysis of risk-factors. Vet Parasitol 130: 223232.
  • Bulut V, Ilhan F, Yucel AY, Onal S, Ilhan Y & Godekmerdan A (2001) Immunological follow-up of hydatid cyst cases. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 96: 669671.
  • Cabrera M, Canova S, Rosenzvit M & Guarnera E (2002) Identification of Echinococcus granulosus eggs. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 44: 2934.
  • Cabrera PA, Irabedra P, Orlando D, et al. (2003) National prevalence of larval echinococcosis in sheep in slaughtering plants Ovis aries as an indicator in control programmes in Uruguay. Acta Trop 85: 281285.
  • Carmena D, Martinez J, Benito A & Guisantes JA (2004) Characterization of excretory-secretory products from protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus and evaluation of their potential for immunodiagnosis of human cystic echinococcosis. Parasitology 129: 371378.
  • Carmena D, Benito A, Martinez J & Guisantes JA (2005) Preliminary study of the presence of antibodies against excretory-secretory antigens from protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus in dogs with intestinal echinococcosis. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 100: 311317.
  • Casulli A, La Rosa G, Manfredi MT, Di Cerbo AR, Dinkel A, Romig T, Deplazes P, Genchi C & Pozio E (2004) Copro-diagnosis of Echinococcus multilocularis by a nested PCR in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from northern Italy. Parassitologia 46: 419420.
  • Casulli A, Manfredi MT, La Rosa G, Di Cerbo AR, Dinkel A, Romig T, Deplazes P, Genchi C & Pozio E (2005) Echinococcus multilocularis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) of the Italian Alpine region: is there a focus of autochthonous transmission? Int J Parasitol 35: 10791083.
  • Cavagion L, Perez A, Santillan G, et al. (2005) Diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis on sheep farms in the south of Argentina: areas with a control program. Vet Parasitol 128: 7381.
  • Chemale G, Van Rossum AJ, Jefferies JR, Barrett J, Brophy PM, Ferreira HB & Zaha A (2003) Proteomic analysis of the larval stage of the parasite Echinococcus granulosus: causative agent of cystic hydatid disease. Proteomics 3: 16331636.
  • Chemale G, Ferreira HB, Barrett J, Brophy PM & Zaha A (2005) Echinococcus granulosus antigen B hydrophobic ligand binding properties. Biochim Biophys Acta 1747: 189194.
  • Chen XH, Wen H, Zhang YX, Feng XH, Lu XM & Ma D (2003) Identification of a gene engineering antibody against cystic echinococcosis in liver. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int 2: 383386.
  • Chow C, Gauci CG, Cowman AF & Lightowlers MW (2004) Echinococcus granulosus: oncosphere-specific transcription of genes encoding a host-protective antigen. Exp Parasitol 106: 183186.
  • Colebrook AL, Jenkins DD & Lightowlers MW (2002) Anti-parasitic effect of cyclosporin A on Echinococcus granulosus and characterization of the associated cyclophilin protein. Parasitology 125: 485493.
  • Cortez-Herrera E, Yamamoto RR, Rodrigues JJ, Farias SE, Ferreira HB & Zaha A (2001) Echinococcus granulosus: cloning and functional in vitro characterization of an actin filament fragmenting protein. Exp Parasitol 97: 215225.
  • Craig P (2003) Echinococcus multilocularis. Curr Opin Infect Dis 16: 437444.
  • Dai WJ, Waldvogel A, Jungi T, Stettler M & Gottstein B (2003) Inducible nitric oxide synthase deficiency in mice increases resistance to chronic infection with Echinococcus multilocularis. Immunology 108: 238244.
  • Dai WJ, Waldvogel A, Siles-Lucas M & Gottstein B (2004) Echinococcus multilocularis proliferation in mice and respective parasite 14-3-3 gene expression is mainly controlled by an alphabeta CD4 T-cell-mediated immune response. Immunology 112: 481488.
  • Dematteis S, Rottenberg M & Baz A (2003) Cytokine response and outcome of infection depends on the infective dose of parasites in experimental infection by Echinococcus granulosus. Parasite Immunol 25: 189197.
  • Deplazes P, Dinkel A & Mathis A (2003) Molecular tools for studies on the transmission biology of Echinococcus multilocularis. Parasitology 127 (Suppl), S53S61.
  • Deutz A, Fuchs K, Nowotny N, Auer H, Schuller W, Stunzner D, Aspock H, Kerbl U & Kofer J (2003) Sero-epidemiological studies of zoonotic infections in hunters – comparative analysis with veterinarians, farmers, and abattoir workers. Wien Klin Wochenschr 115 (Suppl 3), 6167.
  • Doiz O, Benito R, Gil J, Rojas A, Rubio MC & Osuna A (2002) Pre- and postsurgical detection of IgG, IgM, and IgA specific to hydatidosis by ELISA with purified antigen enriched with the 5/B antigen complex. J Clin Lab Anal 16: 295298.
  • Dvoroznakova E, Hrckova G, Boroskova Z, Velebny S & Dubinsky P (2004) Effect of treatment with free and liposomized albendazole on selected immunological parameters and cyst growth in mice infected with Echinococcus multilocularis. Parasitol Int 53: 315325.
  • Eckert J & De Plazes P (2004) Biological, epidemiological, and clinical aspects of echinococcosis, a zoonosis of increasing concern. Clin Microbiol Rev 17: 107135.
  • Eger A, Kirch A, Manfras B, Kern P, Schulz-Key H & Soboslay PT (2003) Pro-inflammatory (IL-1beta, IL-18) cytokines and IL-8 chemokine release by PBMC in response to Echinococcus multilocularis metacestode vesicles. Parasite Immunol 25: 103105.
  • Elayoubi FA & Craig PS (2004) Echinococcus granulosus coproantigens: chromatographic fractionation and characterization. Parasitology 128: 455465.
  • Elayoubi FA, Fraser A, Jenkins DJ & Craig PS (2003) Partial characterisation of carbohydrate-rich Echinococcus granulosus coproantigens. Int J Parasitol 33: 15531559.
  • Emery I, Leclerc C, Sengphommachanh K, Vuitton DA & Liance M (1998) In vivo treatment with recombinant IL-12 protects C57BL/6J mice against secondary alveolar echinococcosis. Parasite Immunol 20: 8191.
  • Fernandez C, Gregory WF, Loke P & Maizels RM (2002) Full-length-enriched cDNA libraries from Echinococcus granulosus contain separate populations of oligo-capped and trans-spliced transcripts and a high level of predicted signal peptide sequences. Mol Biochem Parasitol 122: 171180.
  • Fraize M, Sarciron ME, Azzouz S, Issaadi N, Bosquet G & Petavy AF (2005) Immunogenicity of two Echinococcus granulosus antigens EgA31 and EgTrp in mice. Parasitol Res 96: 113120.
  • Freire T, Fernandez C, Chalar C, Maizels RM, Alzari P, Osinaga E & Robello C (2004) Characterization of a UDP-N-acetyl-d-galactosamine: polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase with an unusual lectin domain from the platyhelminth parasite Echinococcus granulosus. Biochem J 382: 501510.
  • Fujimoto Y, Ito A, Ishikawa Y, Inoue M, Suzuki Y, Ohhira M, Ohtake T & Kohgo Y (2005) Usefulness of recombinant Em18-ELISA to evaluate efficacy of treatment in patients with alveolar echinococcosis. J Gastroenterol 40: 426431.
  • Gauci C, Heath D, Chow C & Lightowlers MW (2005) Hydatid disease: vaccinology and development of the EG95 recombinant vaccine. Expert Rev Vaccines 4: 103112.
  • Gelmedin V, Zavala-Gongora R, Fernandez C & Brehm K (2005) Echinococcus multilocularis: Cloning and characterization of a member of the SNW/SKIP family of transcriptional coregulators. Exp Parasitol 111: 115120.
  • Gimba ER, Chemale G, Farias SS & Zaha A (2000) Cloning and characterization of Echinococcus granulosus (Cestode) EgactI and EgactII actin gene promoters and their functional analysis in the NIH3T3 mouse cell line. Braz J Med Biol Res 33: 12831292.
  • Godot V, Harraga S, Podoprigora G, Liance M, Bardonnet K & Vuitton DA (2003) IFN alpha-2a protects mice against a helminth infection of the liver and modulates immune responses. Gastroenterology 124: 14411450.
  • Gonzalez-Sapienza G & Cachau RE (2003) Identification of critical residues of an immunodominant region of Echinococcus granulosus antigen B. J Biol Chem 278: 2017920184.
  • Gottstein B (1992) Molecular and immunological diagnosis of echinococcosis. Clin Microbiol Rev 5: 248261.
  • Gottstein B, Jacquier P, Bresson-Hadni S & Eckert J (1993) Improved primary immunodiagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis in humans by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using the Em2plus antigen. J Clin Microbiol 31: 373376.
  • Grenard P, Bresson-Hadni S, El Alaoui S, Chevallier M, Vuitton DA & Ricard-Blum S (2001) Transglutaminase-mediated cross-linking is involved in the stabilization of extracellular matrix in human liver fibrosis. J Hepatol 35: 367375.
  • Haag KL, Zanotto P, Alves-Junior L, Gasser RB, Zaha A & Ayala FJ (2006) Searching for antigen B genes and their adaptive sites in distinct starains and species of the helminth Echinococcus. Infect Genet Evol, in press.
  • Hernandez A, Cardozo G, Dematteis S, et al. (2005) Cystic echinococcosis: analysis of the serological profile related to the risk factors in individuals without ultrasound liver changes living in an endemic area of Tacuarembo, Uruguay. Parasitology 130: 455460.
  • Hofer S, Gloor S, Muller U, Mathis A, Hegglin D & Deplazes P (2000) High prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in urban red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and voles (Arvicola terrestris) in the city of Zurich, Switzerland. Parasitology 120: 135142.
  • Hubert K, Cordero E, Frosch M & Solomon F (1999) Activities of the EM10 protein from Echinococcus multilocularis in cultured mammalian cells demonstrate functional relationships to ERM family members. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton 42: 178188.
  • Hubert K, Zavala-Gongora R, Frosch M & Brehm K (2004) Identification and characterization of PDZ-1, a N-ERMAD specific interaction partner of the Echinococcus multilocularis ERM protein Elp. Mol Biochem Parasitol 134: 149154.
  • Ibrahem MM, Rafiei A, Dar FK, Azwai SM, Carter SD & Craig PS (2002) Serodiagnosis of cystic echinococcosis in naturally infected camels. Parasitology 125: 245251.
  • Ito A, Schantz PM & Wilson JF (1995) Em18, a new serodiagnostic marker for differentiation of active and inactive cases of alveolar hydatid disease. Am J Trop Med Hyg 52: 4144.
  • Ito A, Xiao N, Liance M, et al. (2002) Evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with affinity-purified Em18 and an ELISA with recombinant Em18 for differential diagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis: results of a blind test. J Clin Microbiol 40: 41614165.
  • Jiang L, Xu XN, Li X, Xue HC & Feng Z (2004) Identification of the immunodominant regions of the Em18 antigen and improved serodiagnostic specificity for alveolar echinococcosis. Parasite Immunol 26: 377385.
  • Kato N, Nonaka N, Oku Y & Kamiya M (2005a) Modified cellular immune responses in dogs infected with Echinococcus multilocularis. Parasitol Res 95: 339345.
  • Kato N, Nonaka N, Oku Y & Kamiya M (2005b) Immune responses to oral infection with Echinococcus multilocularis protoscoleces in gerbils: modified lymphocyte responses due to the parasite antigen. Parasitol Res 96: 1217.
  • Kittelberger R, Reichel MP, Jenner J, Heath DD, Lightowlers MW, Moro P, Ibrahem MM, Craig PS & O'Keefe JS (2002) Evaluation of three enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the detection of serum antibodies in sheep infected with Echinococcus granulosus. Vet Parasitol 110: 5776.
  • Konrad C, Kroner A, Spiliotis M, Zavala-Gongora R & Brehm K (2003) Identification and molecular characterisation of a gene encoding a member of the insulin receptor family in Echinococcus multilocularis. Int J Parasitol 33: 30112.
  • Lahmar S, Kilani M & Torgerson PR (2001) Frequency distributions of Echinococcus granulosus and other helminths in stray dogs in Tunisia. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 95: 6976.
  • Lawn SD, Bligh J, Craig PS & Chiodini PL (2004) Human cystic echinococcosis: evaluation of post-treatment serologic follow-up by IgG subclass antibody detection. Am J Trop Med Hyg 70: 329335.
  • Lightowlers MW & Heath DD (2004) Immunity and vaccine control of Echinococcus granulosus infection in animal intermediate hosts. Parassitologia 46: 2731.
  • Li FR, Shi YE, Shi DZ, Vuitton DA & Craig PS (2003) Kinetic analysis of cytokines and immunoglobulin G subclass in BALB/c mice infected with Echinococcus alveolaris. Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi 21: 357360.
  • Li J, Zhang WB, Loukas A, Lin RY, Ito A, Zhang LH, Jones M & McManus DP (2004) Functional expression and characterization of Echinococcus granulosus thioredoxin peroxidase suggests a role in protection against oxidative damage. Gene 326: 157165.
  • Li J, Zhang WB & McManus DP (2004) Recombinant antigens for immunodiagnosis of cystic echinococcosis. Biol Proced Online 6: 6777.
  • Li J, Zhang WB, Wilson M, Ito A & McManus DP (2003) A novel recombinant antigen for immunodiagnosis of human cystic echinococcosis. J Infect Dis 188: 19511960.
  • Lopera L, Moro PL, Chavez A, Montes G, Gonzales A & Gilman RH (2003) Field evaluation of a coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of canine echinococcosis in a rural Andean village in Peru. Vet Parasitol 117: 3742.
  • Lorenzo C, Salinas G, Brugnini A, Wernstedt C, Hellman U & Gonzalez-Sapienza G (2003a) Echinococcus granulosus antigen 5 is closely related to proteases of the trypsin family. Biochem J 369: 191198.
  • Lorenzo C, Salinas G, Brugnini A, Wernstedt C, Hellman U & Gonzalez-Sapienza G (2003b) Echinococcus granulosus antigen 5 is closely related to proteases of the trypsin family. Biochem J 369: 191198.
  • Lorenzo C, Ferreira HB, Monteiro KM, et al. (2005) Comparative analysis of the diagnostic performance of six major Echinococcus granulosus antigens assessed in a double-blind, randomized multicenter study. J Clin Microbiol 43: 27642770.
  • Lorenzo C, Last JA & Gonzalez-Sapienza GG (2005) The immunogenicity of Echinococcus granulosus antigen 5 is determined by its post-translational modifications. Parasitology 131: 669677.
  • Losson B, Kervyn T, Detry J, Pastoret PP, Mignon B & Brochier B (2003) Prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in southern Belgium. Vet Parasitol 117: 2328.
  • Macpherson CN, Kachani M, Lyagoubi M, Berrada M, Shepherd M, Fields PF & El Hasnaoui M (2004) Cystic echinococcosis in the Berber of the Mid Atlas mountains, Morocco: new insights into the natural history of the disease in humans. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 98: 481490.
  • Mahmoud MS & Abou Gamra MM (2004) Alkaline phosphatase from Echinococcus granulosus metacestodes for immunodiagnosis of human cystic echinococcosis. J Egypt Soc Parasitol 34: 865879.
  • Mamuti W, Yamasaki H, Sako Y, et al. (2004) Molecular cloning, expression, and serological evaluation of an 8-kilodalton subunit of antigen B from Echinococcus multilocularis. J Clin Microbiol 42: 10821088.
  • Manderson D, Dempster R & Chisti Y (2005) A recombinant vaccine against hydatidosis: production of the antigen in Escherichia coli. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol, 110.
  • Manfras BJ, Reuter S, Wendland T & Kern P (2002) Increased activation and oligoclonality of peripheral CD8(+) T cells in the chronic human helminth infection alveolar echinococcosis. Infect Immun 70: 11681174.
  • Marsland BJ, Tisdall DJ, Heath DD & Mercer AA (2003) Construction of a recombinant orf virus that expresses an Echinococcus granulosus vaccine antigen from a novel genomic insertion site. Arch Virol 148: 555562.
  • McManus DP (2006) Molecular discrimination of taeniid cestodes. Parasitol Int, in press.
  • McManus DP, Zhang W, Li J & Bartley PB (2003) Echinococcosis. Lancet 362: 12951304.
  • Merckelbach A, Wager M & Lucius R (2003) Analysis of cDNAs coding for immunologically dominant antigens from an oncosphere-specific cDNA library of Echinococcus multilocularis. Parasitol Res 90: 493501.
  • Moreno M, Benavidez U, Carol H, Rosenkranz C, Welle M, Carmona C, Nieto A & Chabalgoity JA (2004) Local and systemic immune responses to Echinococcus granulosus in experimentally infected dogs. Vet Parasitol 119: 3750.
  • Moro PL, Garcia HH, Gonzales AE, Bonilla JJ, Verastegui M & Gilmanmd RH (2005) Screening for cystic echinococcosis in an endemic region of Peru using portable ultrasonography and the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay. Parasitol Res 96: 242246.
  • Moro PL, Lopera L, Bonifacio N, Gonzales A, Gilman RH & Moro MH (2005) Risk factors for canine echinococcosis in an endemic area of Peru. Vet Parasitol 130: 99104.
  • Myjak P, Nahorski W, Pietkiewicz H, Von Nickisch-Rosenegk M, Stolarczyk J, Kacprzak E, Felczak-Korzybska I, Szostakowska B & Lucius R (2003) Molecular confirmation of human alveolar echinococcosis in Poland. Clin Infect Dis 37: e121e125.
  • Naidich A, McManus DP, Canova SG, Gutierrez AM, Zhang WB, Eduardo A, Guarnera EA & Rosenzvit MC (2006) Patent and pre-patent detection of Echinococcus granulosus genotypes in the definitive host. Mol Cell Probes, in press.
  • Nasrieh MA & Abdel-Hafez SK (2004) Echinococcus granulosus in Jordan: assessment of various antigenic preparations for use in the serodiagnosis of surgically confirmed cases using enzyme immuno assays and the indirect haemagglutination test. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 48: 117123.
  • Ortona E, Margutti P, Delunardo F, Vaccari S, Rigano R, Profumo E, Buttari B, Teggi A & Siracusano A (2003) Molecular and immunological characterization of the C-terminal region of a new Echinococcus granulosus Heat Shock Protein 70. Parasite Immunol 25: 119126.
  • Pearce EJ & MacDonald AS (2002) The immunobiology of schistosomiasis. Nat Rev Immunol 2: 499511.
  • Qaqish AM, Nasrieh MA, Al-Qaoud KM, Craig PS & Abdel-Hafez SK (2003) The seroprevalences of cystic echinococcosis, and the associated risk factors, in rural-agricultural, bedouin and semi-bedouin communities in Jordan. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 97: 511520.
  • Rehmann P, Grone A, Lawrenz A, Pagan O, Gottstein B & Bacciarini LN (2003) Echinococcus multilocularis in two lowland gorillas (Gorilla g. gorilla). J Comp Pathol 129: 8588.
  • Rehmann P, Grone A, Gottstein B, Vollm J, Sager H, Janovsky M & Bacciarini LN (2005) Detection of Echinococcus multilocularis infection in a colony of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) using serology and ultrasonography. J Vet Diagn Invest 17: 183186.
  • Reiterova K, Miterpakova M, Turcekova L, Antolova D & Dubinsky P (2005) Field evaluation of an intravital diagnostic test of Echinococcus multilocularis infection in red foxes. Vet Parasitol 128: 6571.
  • Ricard-Blum S, Bresson-Hadni S, Guerret S, Grenard P, Volle PJ, Risteli L, Grimaud JA & Vuitton DA (1996) Mechanism of collagen network stabilization in human irreversible granulomatous liver fibrosis. Gastroenterology 111: 172182.
  • Rigano R, Profumo E, Ioppolo S, Notargiacomo S, Ortona E, Teggi A & Siracusano A (1995) Immunological markers indicating the effectiveness of pharmacological treatment in human hydatid disease. Clin Exp Immunol 102: 281285.
  • Rigano R, Profumo E, Ioppolo S, Notargiacomo S, Teggi A & Siracusano A (1999) Serum cytokine detection in the clinical follow up of patients with cystic echinococcosis. Clin Exp Immunol 115: 503507.
  • Rigano R, Buttari B, De Falco E, Profumo E, Ortona E, Margutti P, Scotta C, Teggi A & Siracusano A (2004) Echinococcus granulosus-specific T-cell lines derived from patients at various clinical stages of cystic echinococcosis. Parasite Immunol 26: 4552.
  • Rogan MT, Craig PS, Zehyle E, Masinde G, Wen H & Zhou P (1992) In vitro killing of taeniid oncospheres, mediated by human sera from hydatid endemic areas. Acta Trop 51: 291296.
  • Rosenzvit MC, Zhang WB, Motazedian H, Smyth D, Pearson M, Loukas A, Jones MK & McManus DP (2006) Identification of membrane-bound and secreted proteins from Echinococcus granulosus by signal sequence trap. Int J Parasitol 36: 123130.
  • Sako Y, Nakao M, Nakaya K, Yamasaki H, Gottstein B, Lightowers MW, Schantz PM & Ito A (2002) Alveolar echinococcosis: characterization of diagnostic antigen Em18 and serological evaluation of recombinant Em18. J Clin Microbiol 40: 27602765.
  • Sanchez Thevenet P, Jensen O, Mellado I, Torrecillas C, Raso S, Flores ME, Minvielle MC & Basualdo JA (2003) Presence and persistence of intestinal parasites in canine fecal material collected from the environment in the Province of Chubut, Argentine Patagonia. Vet Parasitol 117: 263269.
  • Shaikenov BS, Rysmukhambetova AT, Massenov B, Deplazes P, Mathis A & Torgerson PR (2004) Short report: the use of a polymerase chain reaction to detect Echinococcus granulosus (G1 strain) eggs in soil samples. Am J Trop Med Hyg 71: 441443.
  • Siles-Lucas M, Merli M, Mackenstedt U & Gottstein B (2003) The Echinococcus multilocularis 14-3-3 protein protects mice against primary but not secondary alveolar echinococcosis. Vaccine 21: 431439.
  • Simsek S & Koroglu E (2004) Evaluation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) for immunodiagnosis of hydatid diseases in sheep. Acta Trop 92: 1724.
  • Siracusano A, Buttari B, Delunardo F, Profumo E, Margutti P, Ortona E, Rigano R & Teggi A (2004) Critical points in the immunodiagnosis of cystic echinococcosis in humans. Parassitologia 46: 401403.
  • Spiliotis M & Brehm K (2004) Echinococcus multilocularis: identification and molecular characterization of a Ral-like small GTP-binding protein. Exp Parasitol 107: 163172.
  • Spiliotis M, Kroner A & Brehm K (2003) Identification, molecular characterization and expression of the gene encoding the epidermal growth factor receptor orthologue from the fox-tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis. Gene 323: 5765.
  • Spiliotis M, Tappe D, Bruckner S, Mosch HU & Brehm K (2005) Molecular cloning and characterization of Ras- and Raf-homologues from the fox-tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis. Mol Biochem Parasitol 139: 225237.
  • Stefanic S, Shaikenov BS, Deplazes P, Dinkel A, Torgerson PR & Mathis A (2004) Polymerase chain reaction for detection of patent infections of Echinococcus granulosus (“sheep strain”) in naturally infected dogs. Parasitol Res 92: 347351.
  • Torgerson PR (2006) Canid immunity to Echinococcus spp: impact on transmission. Parasite Immunol, in press.
  • Torgerson PR, Shaikenov BS, Rysmukhambetova AT, Ussenbayev AE, Abdybekova AM & Burtisurnov KK (2003) Modelling the transmission dynamics of Echinococcus granulosus in dogs in rural Kazakhstan. Parasitology 126: 417424.
  • Varcasia A, Garippa G & Scala A (2004) The diagnosis of Echinococcus granulosus in dogs. Parassitologia 46: 409412.
  • Virginio VG, Hernandez A, Rott MB, Monteiro KM, Zandonai AF, Nieto A, Zaha A & Ferreira HB (2003) A set of recombinant antigens from Echinococcus granulosus with potential for use in the immunodiagnosis of human cystic hydatid disease. Clin Exp Immunol 132: 309315.
  • Vuitton DA (2004) Echinococcosis and allergy. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 26: 93104.
  • Vuitton DA, Bresson-Hadni S, Laroche L, Kaiserlian D, Guerret-Stocker S, Bresson JL & Gillet M (1989) Cellular immune response in Echinococcus multilocularis infection in humans. II. Natural killer cell activity and cell subpopulations in the blood and in the periparasitic granuloma of patients with alveolar echinococcosis. Clin Exp Immunol 78: 6774.
  • Wang Y, Zhang X, Bartholomot B, et al. (2003) Classification, follow-up and recurrence of hepatic cystic echinococcosis using ultrasound images. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 97: 203211.
  • Wei XL, Ding JB, Xu Y, Wen H & Lin RY (2004) Change of cytokines in mice with Echinococcus multilocularis infection. Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi 22: 361364.
  • Wynn TA, Thompson RW, Cheever AW & Mentink-Kane MM (2004) Immunopathogenesis of schistosomiasis. Immunol Rev 201: 156167.
  • Xu MQ, Zhu B, Xue HC, Li X, Guo XR, Zhang YH & Li H (2002) Reexamination of specific antibodies in sera of cystic echinococccosis patients with IgG negative seroresponse. Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi 20: 148151.
  • Yimam AE, Nonaka N, Oku Y & Kamiya M (2002) Prevalence and intensity of Echinococcus multilocularis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes schrencki) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides albus) in Otaru City, Hokkaido, Japan. Jpn J Vet Res 49: 287296.
  • Zavala-Gongora R, Kroner A, Wittek B, Knaus P & Brehm K (2003) Identification and characterisation of two distinct Smad proteins from the fox-tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis. Int J Parasitol 33: 16651677.
  • Zhang W, You H, Zhang Z, Turson G, Hasyet A & McManus DP (2001) Further studies on an intermediate host murine model showing that a primary Echinococcus granulosus infection is protective against subsequent oncospheral challenge. Parasitol Int 50: 279283.
  • Zhang W, Li J & McManus DP (2003a) Concepts in immunology and diagnosis of hydatid disease. Clin Microbiol Rev 16: 1836.
  • Zhang W, Li J, You H, Zhang Z, Turson G, Loukas A & McManus DP (2003b) Short report: Echinococcus granulosus from Xinjiang, PR China: cDNAS encoding the EG95 vaccine antigen are expressed in different life cycle stages and are conserved in the oncosphere. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68: 4043.
  • Zhang W, Li J, You H, Zhang Z, Turson G, Loukas A & McManus DP (2003c) A gene family from Echinococcus granulosus differentially expressed in mature adult worms. Mol Biochem Parasitol 126: 2533.
  • Zhang W, You H, Li J, Zhang Z, Turson G, Aili H, Wang J & McManus DP (2003d) Immunoglobulin profiles in a murine intermediate host model of resistance for Echinococcus granulosus infection. Parasite Immunol 25: 161168.
  • Zhang WB (2003) Echinococcus granulosus: studies of protective immunity, and the isolation and characterisation of stage-specific genes. PhD thesis,University of Queensland, Brisbane.
  • Zhang WB & Zhao DZ (1992) A comparison of calcification of hydatid cysts in sheep pasturred and post-feeded. Chinese J Vet Sci Technol 22: 2829 (in Chinese).