The amino acid residues 361–386 of Streptococcus mutans PAc includes an important region associated with the interaction between S. mutans and salivary components. We investigated the relationships between levels of the anti-PAc (361–386) peptide antibody (PPA) in saliva and periodontal status in 281 elderly subjects (mean age 77 years; 118 females, 163 males) by assessing dental calculus (CA), attachment loss (AL), pocket depth (PD), bleeding on probing (BOP) and various blood parameters. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results revealed that subjects with a PPA level of greater than 0.1 (PPA detected group) showed a lower average value for number of sites with more than 6 mm of AL/6 points × 100/tooth (rAL6) than those with a PPA level of less than 0.1 (PPA not detected group). Furthermore, average values for rAL6 were significantly lower in the PPA detected group, and BOP, AL and rAL6 correlated positively and significantly with the percentage of eosinophils present in leukocytes in female subjects in both groups. PPA level had a negative correlation with percentages of basophils and eosinophils. The results indicate that systemic increases in numbers of eosinophils and basophils are associated with the development of periodontal diseases, while PPA level may be a useful indicator of periodontal status.