CIA07 is an immunostimulatory agent composed of bacterial DNA fragments and modified lipopolysaccharide, which has antitumor activity against bladder cancer in mice. In this study, the adjuvant activity of CIA07 was evaluated using hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) as the immunogen. Mice were immunized intramuscularly three times at 1-week intervals with HBsAg alone or in combination with alum, bacterial DNA fragments, modified lipopolysaccharide, CIA07 or CpG1826, and immune responses were assessed. At 1 week after the final injection, the HBsAg-specific total serum IgG antibody titer in CIA07-treated mice was 14 times higher than that in animals administered antigen alone, six times higher than in mice given alum or bacterial DNA fragments and twice as high as those treated with modified lipopolysaccharide or CpG1826, and remained maximal until 8 weeks postimmunization. Animals receiving antigen alone or plus alum displayed barely detectable HBsAg-specific serum IgG2a antibody responses. However, coadministration of CIA07 with antigen led to markedly enhanced serum IgG2a antibody titer and IFN-γ+ production in splenocytes, indicating that CIA07 effectively induces Th1-type immune responses. In addition, the number of HBsAg-specific CD8+ T cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was elevated in CIA07-treated mice. These data clearly demonstrate that CIA07 is able to induce both cellular and humoral immune responses to HBsAg, and confirm its potential as an adjuvant in therapeutic vaccines for hepatitis B virus infections.