Present address: Yaoyu Feng, School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China.
Article first published online: 18 JAN 2008
Journal compilation © 2008 Federation of European Microbiological Societies Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. No claim to original US government works
FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology
Volume 52, Issue 3, pages 309–323, April 2008
How to Cite
Xiao, L. and Feng, Y. (2008), Zoonotic cryptosporidiosis. FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology, 52: 309–323. doi: 10.1111/j.1574-695X.2008.00377.x
Editor: Willem van Leeuwen
- Issue published online: 29 FEB 2008
- Article first published online: 18 JAN 2008
- Received 15 October 2007; accepted 17 December 2007.First published online March 2008.
- molecular epidemiology;
The widespread usages of molecular epidemiological tools have improved the understanding of cryptosporidiosis transmission. Much attention on zoonotic cryptosporidiosis is centered on Cryptosporidium parvum. Results of genotype surveys indicate that calves are the only major reservoir for C. parvum infections in humans. The widespread presence of human-adapted C. parvum, especially in developing countries, is revealed by recent subtyping and multilocus typing studies, which have also demonstrated the anthroponotic transmission of C. parvum subtypes shared by humans and cattle. Developing and industrialized countries differ significantly in disease burdens caused by zoonotic species and in the source of these parasites, with the former having far fewer human infections caused by C. parvum and little zoonotic transmission of this species. Exclusive anthroponotic transmission of seemingly zoonotic C. parvum subtypes was seen in Mid-Eastern countries. Other zoonotic Cryptosporidium spp. are also responsible for substantial numbers of human infections in developing countries, many of which are probably transmitted by anthroponotic pathways. The lower pathogenicity of some zoonotic species in some populations supports the occurrence of different clinical spectra of Cryptosporidium spp. in humans. The use of a new generation of molecular diagnostic tools is likely to produce a more complete picture of zoonotic cryptosporidiosis.