• Mycobacterium tuberculosis;
  • extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis


Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) is defined as tuberculosis caused by a Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain that is resistant to at least rifampicin and isoniazid among the first-line antitubercular drugs (multidrug-resistant tuberculosis; MDR-TB) in addition to resistance to any fluroquinolones and at least one of three injectable second-line drugs, namely amikacin, kanamycin and/or capreomycin. Recent studies have described XDR-TB strains from all continents. Worldwide prevalence of XDR-TB is estimated to be c. 6.6% in all the studied countries among multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains. The emergence of XDR-TB strains is a reflection of poor tuberculosis management, and controlling its emergence constitutes an urgent global health reality and a challenge to tuberculosis control activities in all parts of the world, especially in developing countries and those lacking resources and as well as in countries with increasing prevalence of HIV/AIDS.