Editor: Willem van Leeuwen
Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis: current challenges and threats
Version of Record online: 28 JUN 2008
© 2008 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved
FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology
Volume 53, Issue 2, pages 145–150, July 2008
How to Cite
Jain, A. and Mondal, R. (2008), Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis: current challenges and threats. FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology, 53: 145–150. doi: 10.1111/j.1574-695X.2008.00400.x
- Issue online: 28 JUN 2008
- Version of Record online: 28 JUN 2008
- Received 11 September 2007; revised 10 February 2008; accepted 11 February 2008.First published online 8 May 2008.
- Mycobacterium tuberculosis;
- extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis
Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) is defined as tuberculosis caused by a Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain that is resistant to at least rifampicin and isoniazid among the first-line antitubercular drugs (multidrug-resistant tuberculosis; MDR-TB) in addition to resistance to any fluroquinolones and at least one of three injectable second-line drugs, namely amikacin, kanamycin and/or capreomycin. Recent studies have described XDR-TB strains from all continents. Worldwide prevalence of XDR-TB is estimated to be c. 6.6% in all the studied countries among multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains. The emergence of XDR-TB strains is a reflection of poor tuberculosis management, and controlling its emergence constitutes an urgent global health reality and a challenge to tuberculosis control activities in all parts of the world, especially in developing countries and those lacking resources and as well as in countries with increasing prevalence of HIV/AIDS.