• NAD(H);
  • NADP(H);
  • glucose metabolism;
  • xylose fermentation;
  • ethanol;
  • Crabtree effect;
  • Custers effect

Abstract The central role of the redox couples NAD+/NADH and NADP+/NADPH in the metabolism of sugars by yeasts is discussed in relation to energy metabolism and product formation. Besides their physical compartmentation in cytosol and mitochondria, the two coenzyme systems are separated by chemical compartmentation as a consequence of the absence of transhydrogenase activity. This has considerable consequences for the redox balances of both coenzyme systems and hence for sugar metabolism in yeasts.

As examples, the competition between respiration and fermentation of glucose, the Crabtree effect, the Custers effect, adaptation to anaerobiosis, the activities of the hexose monophosphate pathway, and the fermentation of xylose in yeast are discussed.