Abstract The host-vector system for an extreme thermophile, Thermus thermophilus HB27, was developed. The host strain has a mutation in tryptophan synthetase gene (trpB), and the mutation was determined to be a missense mutation by DNA sequence analysis. A Thermus-E. coli shuttle vector pYK109 was constructed. pYK109 consists of Thermus cryptic plasmid pTT8, tryptophan synthetase gene (trpB) of Thermus T2 and E. coli plasmid vector pUC13. pYK109 transformed T. thermophilus HB27 trpB5 to Trp to a frequency of 106 transformants per μg DNA.