• 1
    Rohmer, M., Knani, M., Simonin, P., Sutter, B. and Sahm, H. (1993) Isoprenoid biosynthesis in bacteria: a novel pathway for the early steps leading to isopentenyl diphosphate. Biochem. J. 295, 5175247.
  • 2
    Rohmer, M. (1998) A mevalonate-independent route to isopentenyl diphosphate. In: Comprehensive Natural Product Chemistry (Cane, D.E., Ed.), vol. 2, in press. Elsevier, Oxford, UK, and references cited therein.
  • 3
    Arigoni, D., Dagner, S., Latzel, C., Eisenreich, W., Bacher, A. and Zenk, M.H. (1997) Terpenoid biosynthesis from 1-deoxy-d-xylulose in higher plants by intramolecular skeletal rearrangement. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 10600–10605, and references cited therein.
  • 4
    Rohmer, M., Seemann, M., Horbach, S., Bringer-Meyer, S. and Sahm, H. (1996) Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and pyruvate as precursors of isoprenic units in an alternative non-mevalonate pathway for terpenoid biosynthesis. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 25642566.
  • 5
    Duvold, T., Cali, P., Bravo, J.M. and Rohmer, M. (1997) Incorporation of 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol, a putative isoprenoid precursor in the mevalonate-independent pathway, into ubiquinone and menaquinone of Escherichia coli. Tetrahedron Lett. 38, 61816184.
  • 6
    Bejarano, E.R. and Cerdá-Olmedo, E. (1992) Independence of the carotene and sterol pathways of Phycomyces. FEBS Lett. 306, 209212.
  • 7
    Domenech, C.E., Giordano, W., Ávalos, J. and Cerdá-Olmedo, E. (1996) Separate compartments for the production of sterols, carotenoids and gibberellins in Gibberella fujikuroi. Eur. J. Biochem. 239, 720725.
  • 8
    Martelli, H. and Da Silva, I.M. (1993) β-Carotene synthesis in Rhodotorula. Methods Enzymol. 214, 386390.
  • 9
    Britton, G. (1995) Spectroscopy. In: Carotenoids (Britton, G., Liaaen-Jensen, S. and Pfander H., Eds), vol. 1B, pp. 25, Birkhäuser, Basle.
  • 10
    Smith, W.B. (1977) The carbon-13 spectra of steroids on the way to ecdysone. Org. Magn. Reson. 9, 644648.
  • 11
    Seo, S., Uomori, A., Yoshimura, Y., Takeda, K., Seto, H., Ebizuka, Y., Noguchi, H. and Sankawa, U. (1988) Biosynthesis of sitosterol, cycloartenol, and 24-methylenecycloartanol in tissue cultures of higher plants and of ergosterol in yeast from [1,2-13C2]- and [2-13C2H3]-acetate and [5-13C2H2]MVA. J. Chem. Soc. Perkin I, 2407–2414.
  • 12
    Takizawa, K., Fukushima, K., Maebayashi, Y., Okada, K. Nishimura, K. and Miyaji, M. (1992) Isolation and structural elucidation of a dihydro-ubiquinone-9 from the fungus Aureobasidium pullulans. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 92, 129–132, and references cited therein.
  • 13
    van Eijk, G.W., Roeijmans, H.J. and Seykens, D. (1986) Hopanoids from the entomogenous fungus Aschersonia aleyrodis. Tetrahedron Lett. 27, 25332534.
  • 14
    Moss, G.P. (1976) Carbon-13 NMR spectra of carotenoids. Pure Appl. Chem. 47, 97102.
  • 15
    Schwender, J., Seemann, M., Lichtenthaler, H.K. and Rohmer, M. (1996) Biosynthesis of isoprenoids (carotenoids, sterols, prenyl side-chains of chlorophylls and plastoquinone) via a novel pyruvate/glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate non-mevalonate pathway in the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus. Biochem. J. 316, 7380.
  • 16
    Braithwaite, G.D. and Goodwin, T.W. (1960) The incorporation of [14C]acetate, [14C]mevalonate and 14CO2 into β-carotene by the fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus. Biochem. J. 76, 510.
  • 17
    Grob, E.C. and Bütler, R. (1954) Über die Biosynthese des β-Carotins bei Mucor hiemalis. Die Beteiligung der Essigsäure am Aufbau des Carotinmoleküls, untersucht mit Hilfe C14-markierter Essigsäure. Experientia 10, 250251.
  • 18
    Tefft, R.E., Goodwin, T.W. and Simpson, K.L. (1970) Aspects of the stereochemistry of torularhodin biosynthesis. Biochem. J. 117, 921927.
  • 19
    Neujahr, H.J. and Björk, L. (1970) Utilization of malonyl-CoA for the biosynthesis of β-carotene and ergosterol in cell-free preparations from Blakeslea trispora. Acta Chem. Scand. 24, 23612365.
  • 20
    Evans, R. and Hanson, J.R. (1972) The formation of (−)-kaurene in a cell-free system from Gibberella fujikuroi. J. Chem. Soc. Perkin I, 2382–2385.
  • 21
    Holker, J.S.E., Lapper, R.D. and Simpson, T.J. (1974) The biosynthesis of fungal metabolites. Part IV.1 Tajixanthone: 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum and feedings with [1-13C]- and [2-13C]-acetate. J. Chem. Soc. Perkin I, 2135–2140.
  • 22
    Tanabe, M., Suzuki, K.T. and Jankowski, W.C. (1973) Biosynthetic studies with carbon-13: effective use of a paramagnetic ion in the FT-13CNMR spectra of helicobasidin. Tetrahedron Lett. 47, 42734726.
  • 23
    Chalmers, A.A., de Jesus, A.E., Gorst-Allman, C.P. and Steyn, P.S. (1981) Biosynthesis of PR toxin by Penicillium roqueforti. J. Chem. Soc. Perkin I, 2899–2902.
  • 24
    Simpson, T.J. (1981) Biosynthesis of highly modified meroterpenoids in Aspergillus variecolor. Incorporation of 13C-labelled acetates and methionine into anditomin and andilesin C. Tetrahedron Lett. 22, 37853788.
  • 25
    Simpson, T.J. and Stenzel, D.J. (1981) Biosynthesis of austin, a polyketide-terpenoid metabolite of Aspergillus ustus. J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 1042–1043.
  • 26
    Nakajima, H., Toratsu, Y., Fujii, Y., Ichinoe, M. and Hamasaki, T. (1998) Biosynthesis of sorokinianin a phytotoxin of Bipolaris sorokiniana: evidence of mixed origin from the sesquiterpene and TCA pathways. Tetrahedron Lett. 39, 10131016.
  • 27
    Ackland, M.J., Hanson, J.R. and Ratcliffe, A.H. (1984) Studies in terpenoid biosynthesis. Part 30.1 The acetate and mevalonate labelling patterns of the diterpenoid, aphidicolin. J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans I, 2751–2754.
  • 28
    Riisom, T., Jakobsen, H.J., Rastrup-Andersen, N. and Lorck, H. (1974) Assignement of the 13C NMR spectra of fusidic acid derivatives. Biosynthetic incorporation of sodium [1-13C]-acetate into fusidic acid. Tetrahedron Lett. 26, 22472250.
  • 29
    Seo, S., Sankawa, U., Seto, H. Uomori, A., Yoshimura, Y., Ebizuka, Y., Noguchi, H. and Takeda, K. (1986) Biosynthesis of sitosterol in tissue cultures of Rabdosia japonica Hara and ergosterol in yeast from [2-13C,2-2H3]acetate. J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 1139–1141.
  • 30
    Lichtenthaler, H.K., Schwender, J., Disch, A. and Rohmer, M. (1997) Biosynthesis of isoprenoids in higher plant chloroplasts proceeds via a mevalonate-independent pathway. FEBS Lett. 400, 271274.
  • 31
    Bach, T.J. (1995) Some new aspects of isoprenoid biosynthesis in plants – a review. Lipids 30, 191–202, and references cited therein.