• [1]
    Furia, T.E., Schenkel, A.G. (1968) New, broad spectrum bacteriostat. Soap Chem. Special. 44, 4750.
  • [2]
    Bhargava, H.N., Leonard, P.A. (1996) Triclosan: applications and safety. Am. J. Infect. Control 24, 209218.
  • [3]
    McMurry, L.M., Oethinger, M., Levy, S.B. (1998) Triclosan targets lipid synthesis. Nature 394, 531532.
  • [4]
    Regos, J., Hitz, H.R. (1974) Investigations on the mode of action of triclosan, a broad spectrum antimicrobial agent. Zbl. Bakt. Hyg., I. Abt. Orig. A 226, 390401.
  • [5]
    Nikaido, H. (1996) Multidrug efflux pumps of Gram-negative bacteria. J. Bacteriol. 178, 58535859.
  • [6]
    Okusu, H., Ma, D., Nikaido, H. (1996) AcrAB efflux pump plays a major role in the antibiotic resistance phenotype of Escherichia coli multiple antibiotic-resistance (Mar) mutants. J. Bacteriol. 178, 306308.
  • [7]
    Thanassi, D.G., Cheng, L.W., Nikaido, H. (1997) Active efflux of bile salts by Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 179, 25122518.
  • [8]
    Moken, M.C., McMurry, L.M., Levy, S.B. (1997) Selection of multiple-antibiotic-resistant (Mar) mutants of Escherichia coli by using the disinfectant pine oil: roles of the mar and acrAB loci. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41, 27702772.
  • [9]
    Ma, D., Cook, D.N., Alberti, M., Pon, N.G., Nikaido, H., Hearst, J.E. (1995) Genes acrA and acrB encode a stress-induced efflux system of Escherichia coli. Mol. Microbiol. 16, 4555.
  • [10]
    Alekshun, M.N., Levy, S.B. (1997) Regulation of chromosomally mediated multiple antibiotic resistance: the mar regulon. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41, 20672075.
  • [11]
    Cohen, S.P., Hächler, H., Levy, S.B. (1993) Genetic and functional analysis of the multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) locus in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 175, 14841492.
  • [12]
    Seoane, A.S., Levy, S.B. (1995) Characterization of MarR, the repressor of the multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) operon of Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 177, 34143419.
  • [13]
    Li, Z., Demple, B. (1996) Sequence specificity for DNA binding by Escherichia coli SoxS and Rob proteins. Mol. Microbiol. 20, 937945.
  • [14]
    Miller, P.E., Sulavik, M.C. (1996) Overlaps and parallels in the regulation of intrinsic multiple-antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli. Mol. Microbiol. 21, 441448.
  • [15]
    Ma, D., Alberti, M., Lynch, C., Nikaido, H., Hearst, J.E. (1996) The local repressor AcrR plays a modulating role in the regulation of acrAB genes of Escherichia coli by global stress signals. Mol. Microbiol. 19, 101112.
  • [16]
    J.E. Cronan Jr., C.O. Rock (1996) Biosynthesis of membrane lipids In: Escherichia coli and Salmonella: Cellular and Molecular Biology (F.C.Neidhardt Eds.) pp. 612636. ASM Press, Washington , DC .
  • [17]
    Oethinger, M., Kern, W.V., Goldman, J.D., Levy, S.B. (1997) Association of organic solvent tolerance and fluoroquinolone resistance in clinical isolates of Escherichia coli. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 41, 111114.
  • [18]
    Oethinger, M., Podglajen, I., Kern, W.V., Levy, S.B. (1998) Overexpression of the regulatory marA or soxS gene in clinical topoisomerase mutants of Escherichia coli. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 42, 20892094.
  • [19]
    White, D.G., Goldman, J.D., Demple, B., Levy, S.B. (1997) Role of the acrAB locus in organic solvent tolerance mediated by expression of marA, soxS, or robA in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 179, 61226126.
  • [20]
    Greenberg, J.T., Chou, J.H., Monach, P.A., Demple, B. (1991) Activation of oxidative stress genes by mutations at the soxQI/cfxB1/marA locus of Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 173, 44334439.
  • [21]
    George, A.M., Levy, S.B. (1983) Amplifiable resistance to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and other antibiotics in Escherichia coli: involvement of a non-plasmid-determined efflux of tetracycline. J. Bacteriol. 155, 531540.
  • [22]
    D.L. Provence, R.I. Curtiss (1994) Gene transfer in Gram-negative bacteria In: Methods for General and Molecular Bacteriology, (P.Gerhardt, R.G.E.Murray, W.A.Wood, N.R.Kreig Eds.) pp. 317347. American Society for Microbiology, Washington , DC .
  • [23]
    Schweizer, H.P. (1998) Intrinsic resistance to inhibitors of fatty acid biosynthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is due to efflux: application of a novel technique for generation of unmarked chromosomal mutations for the study of efflux systems. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 42, 394398.