• Salmonella;
  • Escherichia coli;
  • Listeria;
  • Feces;
  • Ammonia;
  • Chicken;
  • Water;
  • Growth;
  • Development


Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes were able to grow for a period of 2 days in fresh chicken manure at 20°C with a resulting 1–2 log units increase in CFU; Salmonella typhimurium remained stable. Prolongation of the storage time to 6 days resulted in a 1–2 log decrease of S. typhimurium compared to the initial count and a 3–4 log decrease of E. coli O157:H7; the number of L. monocytogenes did not decrease below the initial. These changes were accompanied by an increase in pH and accumulation of ammonia in the manure. The destruction of the three microorganisms was greatly increased by drying the manure to a moisture content of 10% followed by exposure to ammonia gas in an amount of 1% of the manure wet weight; S. typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 were reduced by 8 log units, L. monocytogenes by 4.