Transcription of laccase and cellulase genes of Lentinula edodes was examined during growth and development under different temperature and moisture levels on a sawdust-based substrate. RNA was extracted from samples of mycelium and fruit bodies at various stages of development and gene expression was determined by competitive RT-PCR. The level of laccase transcripts was maximal during the mycelial growth stage, and then declined rapidly at the fruiting stage. In contrast, the cellulase transcript level peaked at the veil–break stage during fruit body development. Gene expressions for laccase and cellulase were triggered by microclimatic changes, specifically lower temperature and osmotic pressure.