• [1]
    Shirai, Y., Sunakawa, K., Ichihashi, Y., Yamaguchi, H. (1979) A morphological study in germfree mice (Salmonella infection). Exp. Pathol. 17, 158166.
  • [2]
    Sprinz, H., Gangarosa, E.J., Williams, M., Hornick, R.B., Woodward, T.E. (1966) Histopathology of the upper small intestines in typhoid fever. Biopsy study of experimental disease in man. Am. J. Dig. Dis. 11, 615624.
  • [3]
    Kraus, M.D., Amatya, B., Kimula, Y. (1999) Histopathology of typhoid enteritis: morphologic and immunophenotypic findings. Mod. Pathol. 12, 949955.
  • [4]
    Bitar, R., Tarpley, J. Intestinal perforation and typhoid fever: a historical and state-of-the-art review Rev. Infect. Dis. 7 1985 257.
  • [5]
    Tsolis, R.M., Kingsley, R.A., Townsend, S.M., Ficht, T.A., Adams, L.G., Bäumler, A.J. (1999) Of mice, calves, and men. Comparison of the mouse typhoid model with other Salmonella infections. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 473, 261274.
  • [6]
    Tsolis, R.M., Adams, L.G., Ficht, T.A., Bäumler, A.J. (1999) Contribution of Salmonella typhimurium virulence factors to diarrheal disease in calves. Infect. Immun. 67, 48794885.
  • [7]
    Thorns, C.J. and Woodward, M.J. (2000) Fimbriae of Salmonella. In: Salmonella in Domestic Animals (Wray, C. and Wray, A., Eds.), pp. 35–55. CABI, New York.
  • [8]
    Townsend, S.M., Kramer, N.E., Edwards, R., Baker, S., Hamlin, N., Simmonds, M., Stevens, K., Maloy, S., Parkhill, J., Dougan, G., Bäumler, A.J. (2001) Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi possesses a unique repertoire of fimbrial gene sequences. Infect. Immun. 69, 28942901.
  • [9]
    Bäumler, A.J., Gilde, A.J., Tsolis, R.M., van der Velden, A.W.M., Ahmer, B.M.M., Heffron, F. (1997) Contribution of horizontal gene transfer and deletion events to the development of distinctive patterns of fimbrial operons during evolution of Salmonella serotypes. J. Bacteriol. 179, 317322.
  • [10]
    Bäumler, A.J., Tsolis, R.M., Heffron, F. (1996) Contribution of fimbrial operons to attachment to and invasion of epithelial cell lines by Salmonella typhimurium. Infect. Immun. 64, 18621865.
  • [11]
    Ernst, R.K., Dombroski, D.M., Merrick, J.M. (1990) Anaerobiosis, type 1 fimbriae, and growth phase are factors that affect invasion of HEp-2 cells by Salmonella typhimurium. Infect. Immun. 58, 20142016.
  • [12]
    Wilson, R.L., Elthon, J., Clegg, S., Jones, B.D. (2000) Salmonella enterica serovars gallinarum and pullorum expressing Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium type 1 fimbriae exhibit increased invasiveness for mammalian cells. Infect Immun. 68, 47824785.
  • [13]
    Bäumler, A.J., Tsolis, R.M., Heffron, F. (1996) The lpf fimbrial operon mediates adhesion to murine Peyer's patches. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 279283.
  • [14]
    Bäumler, A.J., Tsolis, R.M., Bowe, F., Kusters, J.G., Hoffmann, S., Heffron, F. (1996) The pef fimbrial operon mediates adhesion to murine small intestine and is necessary for fluid accumulation in infant mice. Infect. Immun. 64, 6168.
  • [15]
    Folkesson, A., Advani, A., Sukupolvi, S., Pfeifer, J.D., Normark, S., Lofdahl, S. (1999) Multiple insertions of fimbrial operons correlate with the evolution of Salmonella serovars responsible for human disease. Mol. Microbiol. 33, 612622.
  • [16]
    Tsolis, R.M., Townsend, S.M., Miao, E.A., Miller, S.I., Ficht, T.A., Adams, L.G., Bäumler, A.J. (1999) Identification of a putative Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium host range factor with homology to IpaH and YopM by signature-tagged mutagenesis. Infect. Immun. 67, 63856393.
  • [17]
    van der Velden, A.W.M., Bäumler, A.J., Tsolis, R.M., Heffron, F. (1998) Multiple fimbrial adhesins are required for full virulence of Salmonella typhimurium in mice. Infect. Immun. 66, 28032808.
  • [18]
    Cooper, G.L., Thorns, C.J. (1996) Evaluation of SEF14 fimbrial dot blot and flagellar Western blot tests as indicators of Salmonella enteritidis infection in chickens. Vet. Rec. 138, 149153.
  • [19]
    Woodward, M.J., Allen-Vercoe, E., Redstone, J.S. (1996) Distribution, gene sequence and expression in vivo of the plasmid encoded fimbrial antigen of Salmonella serotype Enteritidis. Epidemiol. Infect. 117, 1728.
  • [20]
    Thiagarajan, D., Thacker, H.L., Saeed, A.M. (1996) Experimental infection of laying hens with Salmonella enteritidis strains that express different types of fimbriae. Poult. Sci. 75, 13651372.
  • [21]
    Barbour, E.K., ElJurdi, L.H., Faroo, O.M., Daghir, N.J., Bouljihad, M. (2000) Chronological recognition by chicken of antigenic polypeptides in Salmonella enteritidis with different plasmid profiles: relationship to infection rate. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 62, 565570.
  • [22]
    Nicholson, T.L., Bäumler, A.J. (2001) Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium elicits cross-immunity against a Salmonella enterica serotype enteritidis strain expressing LP fimbriae from the lac promoter [in process citation]. Infect. Immun. 69, 204212.
  • [23]
    Ogunniyi, A.D., Manning, P.A., Kotlarski, I. (1994) A Salmonella enteritidis 11RX pilin induces strong T-lymphocyte responses. Infect. Immun. 62, 53765383.
  • [24]
    Mittrucker, H.W., Raupach, B., Kohler, A., Kaufmann, S.H. (2000) Cutting edge: role of B lymphocytes in protective immunity against Salmonella typhimurium infection. J. Immunol. 164, 16481652.
  • [25]
    Mastroeni, P., Simmons, C., Fowler, R., Hormaeche, C.E., Dougan, G. (2000) Igh-6(−/−) (B-cell-deficient) mice fail to mount solid acquired resistance to oral challenge with virulent Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium and show impaired Th1 T-cell responses to Salmonella antigens. Infect. Immun. 68, 4653.
  • [26]
    Mastroeni, P., Villarreal-Ramos, B., Hormaeche, C.E. (1992) Role of T cells, TNF alpha and IFN gamma in recall of immunity to oral challenge with virulent salmonellae in mice vaccinated with live attenuated aro- Salmonella vaccines. Microb. Pathog. 13, 477491.
  • [27]
    Norris, T.L., Kingsley, R.A., Bäumler, A.J. (1998) Expression and transcriptional control of the Salmonella typhimurium lpf fimbrial operon by phase variation. Mol. Microbiol. 29, 311320.
  • [28]
    Nicholson, B., Low, D. (2000) DNA methylation-dependent regulation of pef expression in Salmonella typhimurium. Mol. Microbiol. 35, 728742.
  • [29]
    Swenson, D.L., Clegg, S. (1992) Identification of ancillary fim genes affecting fimA expression in Salmonella typhimurium. J. Bacteriol. 174, 76977704.
  • [30]
    Hormaeche, C.E., Mastroeni, P., Harrison, J.A., Demarco de Hormaeche, R., Svenson, S., Stocker, B.A. (1996) Protection against oral challenge three months after i.v. immunization of BALB/c mice with live Aro Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella enteritidis vaccines is serotype (species)-dependent and only partially determined by the main LPS O antigen. Vaccine 14, 251259.
  • [31]
    Norris, T.L., Bäumler, A.J. (1999) Phase variation of the lpf fimbrial operon is a mechanism to evade cross immunity between Salmonella serotypes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 1339313398.
  • [32]
    Kingsley, R.A., Bäumler, A.J. (2000) Host adaptation and the emergence of infectious disease: the Salmonella paradigm. Mol. Microbiol. 36, 10061014.