• Blanco-Rivero A, Leganes F, Fernandez-Valiente E, Calle P & Fernandez-Pinas F (2005) Aart mrpA, a gene with roles in resistance to Na+ and adaptation to alkaline pH in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC7120. Microbiol 151: 16711682.
  • Bosacri A, Mandon K, Dupont L, Poggi MC & Rudulier DL (2002) BetS is a major glycine betaine/praline betaine transporter required for early osmotic adjustment in Sinorhizobium meliloti. J Bacteriol 184: 26542663.
  • Bruijn FJ & Rossbach S (1994) Transposon mutagenesis. Methods for General and Molecular Biology (GerhardtP, MurrayGE, WoodA & KriegNR, eds) American Society for Microbiology, Washington DC.
  • Hamamoto T, Hashimoto M, Hino M, Kitada M, Seto Y, Kudo T & Horikoshi K (1994) Characterization of a gene responsible for the Na+/H+ antiporter system of alkaliphilic Bacillus species strain C-125. Mol Microbiol 14: 939946.
  • Hiramatsu T, Kodama K, Kuroda T, Mizushima T & Tsuchiya T (1998) A putative multisubuint Na+/H+ antioporter from Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacterial 180: 66426648.
  • Ito M, Guffanti AA, Oudega B & Krulwich TA (1999) mrp a multigene, multifunctional locus in Bacillus subtilis with roles in resistance to cholate and to Na+ and in pH homeostasis. J Bacteriol 181: 23942402.
  • Ito M, Guffanti AA, Wang W & Krulwich TA (2000) Effect of nonpolar mutations in each of the seven Bacillus subtilis mrp genes suggest complex interactions among the gene productions in support of Na+ and alkali but not cholate resistance. J Bacteriol 182: 56635670.
  • Jiang JQ, Wei W, Du BH, Li XH, Wang L & Yang SS (2004) Salt tolerance genes involved in cation efflux and osmoregulation of Sinorhizobium fredii RT19 detected by isolation and characterization of Tn5 mutants. FEMS Microbiol Lett 239: 139146.
  • Kosono S, Morotomi S, Kitada M & Kudo T (1999) Analyses of a Bacillus subtilis homologue of the Na+/H+ antiporter gene which is important for pH homeostasis of alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. C-125. Biochim Biophys Acta 1409: 171175.
  • Kosono S, Ohashi Y, Kawamura F, Kitada M & Kudo T (2000) Function of a principal Na+/H+ Antiporter, ShaA, is required for initiation of sporulation in Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol 182: 898904.
  • Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL & Randall RJ (1951) Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 193: 265275.
  • Nakamura T, Tokuda H & Unemoto T (1982) Effects of pH and monovalent cations on the potassium ion exit from the marine bacterium, Vibrio alginolyticus, and the manipulation of cellular cation contents. Biochim Biophys Acta 692: 389396.
  • Osteras M, Boncompagni E, Vincent N, Poggi MC & Rudulier DL (1998) Presence of gene encoding choline sulfatase in Sinorhizobium meliloti bet operon: choline-O-sulfate is metabolized into glycine betaine. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95: 1139411399.
  • Padan E, Venturi M, Gerchman Y & Dover N (2001) Na+/H+ antiporters. Biochim Biophys Acta 1505: 144157.
  • Padan E, Bibi E, Ito M & Krulwich TA (2005) Alkaline pH homeostasis in bacteria: new insights. Biochim Biophys Acta 177: 6788.
  • Putnoky P, Kereszt A, Nakamura T, Endre G, Grosskopf E, Kiss P & Kondorosi A (1998) The pha gene cluster of Rhizobium meliloti involved in pH adaptation and symbiosis encodes a novel type of K+ efflux system. Mol Microbiol 28: 10911101.
  • Rosen BP (1986) Ion extrusion systems in Escherichia coli. Meth Enzymol 125: 328336.
  • Sambrook J, Fritsch EF & Maniatis T (1989) Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, 2nd edn. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY.
  • Swaraj K & Bishnoi NR (1999) Effect of salt stress on nodulation and nitrogen fixation in legumes. Indian J Exp Biol 37: 843848.
  • Swartz TH, Ikewada S, Ishikawa O, Ito M & Krulwich TA (2005) The Mrp system: a giant among monovalent cation/proton antiporters. Extremophiles 9: 345354.