• bldA;
  • TTA codon;
  • bioinformatics;
  • codon adaptation index


The rarest codon in the high G+C genome of Streptomyces coelicolor is TTA, corresponding in mRNA to the UUA codon that is recognized by a developmentally important tRNA encoded by the bldA gene. There are 145 TTA-containing genes in the chromosome of S. coelicolor. Only 42 of these are represented in the genome of Streptomyces avermitilis, among which only 12 have a TTA codon in both species. The TTA codon is less represented in housekeeping genes and orthologous genes, and is more represented in functional-unknown, extrachromosomal or weakly expressed genes. Twenty one TTA-containing chromosomal genes in S. coelicolor were disrupted, including 12 of the 42 genes that are common to both S. avermitillis and S. coelicolor. None of the mutant strains showed any obvious phenotypic differences from the wild-type strain under tested conditions. Possible reasons for this, and the role and evolution of the observed distribution of TTA codons among Streptomyces genes were discussed.