Present address: Ann-Maree Catanzariti, Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, The University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.
Avirulence proteins from haustoria-forming pathogens
Article first published online: 2 MAR 2007
FEMS Microbiology Letters
Volume 269, Issue 2, pages 181–188, April 2007
How to Cite
Catanzariti, A.-M., Dodds, P. N. and Ellis, J. G. (2007), Avirulence proteins from haustoria-forming pathogens. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 269: 181–188. doi: 10.1111/j.1574-6968.2007.00684.x
Editor: Richard Staples
- Issue published online: 13 MAR 2007
- Article first published online: 2 MAR 2007
- Received 17 December 2006; revised 30 January 2007; accepted 6 February 2007.First published online March 2007.
- avirulence proteins;
- fungal effectors;
- disease resistance
A major insight that has emerged in the study of haustoria-forming plant pathogens over the last few years is that these eukaryotic biotrophs deliver suites of secreted proteins into host cells during infection. This insight has largely derived from successful efforts to identify avirulence (Avr) genes and their products from these pathogens. These Avr genes, identified from a rust and a powdery mildew fungus and three oomycete species, encode small proteins that are recognized by resistance proteins in the host plant cytoplasm, suggesting that they are transported inside plant cells during infection. These Avr proteins probably represent examples of fungal and oomycete effector proteins with important roles in subverting host cell biology during infection. In this respect, they represent a new opportunity to understand the basis of disease caused by these biotrophic pathogens. Elucidating how these pathogen proteins gain entry into plant cells and their biological function will be key questions for future research.