Many bacteria produce antimicrobial substances such as nonribosomally synthesized antibiotics and ribosomally synthesized proteinaceous compounds referred to as bacteriocins. Secretion of antimicrobials is generally thought to contribute to the competitiveness of the producing organism, but there are indications that these compounds in some cases may have regulatory roles too. Bacteriocins most often act on closely related species only and are thus of interest for application as targeted narrow-spectrum antimicrobials with few side effects. Although the application of bacteriocins in plant disease control is an attractive option, very little is known about the occurrence and roles of these compounds in plant pathogenic bacteria and their natural competitors occurring in the same biotopes. This study presents an overview of current knowledge of bacteriocins from plant pathogenic bacteria.