• macrolide;
  • lincosamide;
  • streptogramin;
  • ketolide;
  • oxazolidinone;
  • resistance


This Minireview summarizes the changes in the field of bacterial resistance to macrolide, lincosamide, streptogramin, ketolide, and oxazolidinone (MLSKO) antibiotics since the nomenclature review in 1999. A total of 66 genes conferring resistance to this group of antibiotics has now been identified and includes 13 new rRNA methylase genes, four ATP-binding transporter genes coding for efflux proteins, and five new inactivating enzymes. During this same time period, 73 new genera carrying known rRNA methylase genes and 87 new genera carrying known efflux and/or inactivating genes have been recognized. The number of bacteria with mutations in the genes for 23S rRNA, L4 and L22 ribosomal proteins, resulting in reduced susceptibility to some members of the group of MLSKO antibiotics has also increased and now includes nine different Gram-positive and 10 different Gram-negative genera. New conjugative transposons carrying different MLSKO genes along with an increased number of antibiotics and/or heavy metal resistance genes have been identified. These mobile elements may play a role in the continued spread of the MLSKO resistance genes into new species, genera, and ecosystems.