Editor: Geoffrey Gadd
Extracellular laccase activity and transcript levels of putative laccase genes during removal of the xenoestrogen technical nonylphenol by the aquatic hyphomycete Clavariopsis aquatica
Article first published online: 1 SEP 2008
© 2008 Helmholz Centre for Environmental Research. Journal compilation © 2008 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd
FEMS Microbiology Letters
Volume 288, Issue 1, pages 47–54, November 2008
How to Cite
Solé, M., Kellner, H., Brock, S., Buscot, F. and Schlosser, D. (2008), Extracellular laccase activity and transcript levels of putative laccase genes during removal of the xenoestrogen technical nonylphenol by the aquatic hyphomycete Clavariopsis aquatica. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 288: 47–54. doi: 10.1111/j.1574-6968.2008.01333.x
Present addresses: Harald Kellner, School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. François Buscot, Department of Soil Ecology, UFZ – Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, 06120 Halle, Saale, Germany.
- Issue published online: 25 SEP 2008
- Article first published online: 1 SEP 2008
- Received 9 June 2008; revised 30 July 2008; accepted 31 July 2008.First published online 1 September 2008.
- aquatic hyphomycetes;
- endocrine-disrupting chemicals;
- technical nonylphenol;
- laccase genes;
- semi-quantitative PCR
We investigated the influence of potential laccase inducers with environmental relevance on extracellular laccase activity and removal of the xenoestrogen technical nonylphenol (tNP) by the aquatic hyphomycete Clavariopsis aquatica. Concomitantly, we identified two putative laccase gene fragments (lcc1 and lcc2) and have followed their expression during removal of tNP under different conditions. Our results indicate a significant effect of copper on extracellular laccase activity in supernatants of fungal cultures. Laccase activity was highest in the presence of copper when added together with vanillic acid, followed by copper when used alone. Only slight laccase activities were recorded in the presence of only vanillic acid, whereas in the absence of either compound laccase activities were negligible. Laccase activity was well correlated with the removal efficiency of tNP, indicating the involvement of laccase in tNP bioconversion. Overall, lcc2 was less expressed than lcc1. The expression of lcc1 and lcc2 correlated only partially with the measured laccase activity, suggesting the existence of cell-associated laccase fractions not detectable in fungal culture supernatants and/or the existence of additional laccase genes.