• phenotypic characterization;
  • genetic characterization;
  • BSFGE;
  • Streptococcus dysgalactiae;
  • sodA gene


Lancefield group C Streptococcus dysgalactiae is an emerging fish pathogen, which was first isolated in 2002 in Japan. Streptococcus dysgalactiae isolates collected from diseased fish in Japan (n=12), Taiwan (n=12), China (n=2), Malaysia (n=3), and Indonesia (n=1) were characterized using biased sinusoidal field gel electrophoresis (BSFGE), sodA gene sequence analysis, and antimicrobial susceptibility. These isolates exhibited high phenotypic homogeneity irrespective of the countries from where the strains were collected. Seventeen isolates were found to be resistant to oxytetracycline and carried the tet(M) gene, except for the strains collected in Taiwan and the PP1564 strain collected in China. The sodA gene sequence analysis revealed that 23 isolates were identical, except for one Japanese isolate (KNH07902), in which a single nucleotide differed from that of the other isolates. Based on BSFGE typing by ApaI macrorestriction, the isolates – including the Japanese, Taiwanese, and Chinese isolates – could be grouped into one main cluster at a 70% similarity level. However, the macrorestriction genotypes of some isolates were apparently distinct from those of the main cluster.