Rainbow trout gastroenteritis has been related to the accumulation of segmented filamentous bacteria in the digestive tract of fish, which presents lethargy, reduced appetite and accumulation of mucoid faeces. Some authors associate the comparison of illness with the presence of viable filaments, which produce and release strings of endospores in the lumen of the gut. The segmented filamentous bacteria that could not be cultured in vitro have been related to Clostridium group I, and they have been named Candidatus arthromitus. Despite the various strategies that have been used to detect unculturable microorganisms, molecular methods have facilitated studies on culture-independent microorganisms. Direct DNA extraction from samples and subsequent study of 16S rRNA genes represent a tool for studying unculturable microbial flora. As direct detection of specific microorganisms is possible through the utilization of primers or probes annealing specific DNA sequences, the aim of this work was to design specific primers for the direct detection of C. arthromitus in fish using a nested PCR.