Phylogenetic relationships among three genera, Gluconobacter, Acetobacter, and Gluconacetobacter, of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are still unclear, although phylogenetic analysis using 16S rRNA gene sequence has shown that Gluconacetobacter diverged first from the ancestor of these three genera. Therefore, the relationships among these three genera were investigated by genome-wide phylogenetic analysis of AAB. Contrary to the results of 16S rRNA gene analysis, phylogenetic analysis of 293 enzymes involved in metabolism clearly showed that Gluconobacter separated first from its common ancestor with Acetobacter and Gluconacetobacter. In addition, we defined 753 unique orthologous proteins among five known complete genomes of AAB, and phylogenetic analysis was carried out using concatenated gene sequences of these 753 proteins. The result also showed that Gluconobacter separated first from its common ancestor with Acetobacter and Gluconacetobacter. Our results strongly suggest that Gluconobacter was the first to diverge from the common ancestor of Gluconobacter, Acetobacter, and Gluconacetobacter, a relationship that is in good agreement with the physiologies and habitats of these genera.