• Anoxybacillus flavithermus ssp. yunnanensis ssp. nov.;
  • ethanol tolerance;
  • thermophile


In a search for thermophilic ethanol-tolerant bacteria, water-sediment samples collected at springs in Yunnan province of China were screened by ethanol enrichment. A novel thermophilic bacterium, strain E13T, was isolated. It exhibits a unique and remarkable ability to preferably grow in the presence of ethanol and is able to tolerate 13% (v/v) ethanol at 60 °C. The isolate is a facultative aerobic, Gram-positive, motile, spore-forming rod that is capable of utilizing a range of carbon sources, such as xylose, arabinose and cellobiose. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene similarity showed the strain to be affiliated with the species Anoxybacillus flavithermus (99.2% sequence similarity). DNA–DNA hybridization comparisons demonstrated a 64.8% DNA–DNA relatedness between strain E13T and A. flavithermus DSM 2641T. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic data and DNA–DNA hybridization data, it was concluded that the isolate merited classification as a novel subspecies of A. flavithermus, for which the name Anoxybacillus flavithermus ssp. yunnanensis ssp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of this subspecies is E13T (=CCTCC AB2010187T=KCTC 13759T).