• Candida albicans;
  • population dynamics;
  • drug resistance;
  • evolution


Candida albicans is an important human fungal pathogen. Resistance to all major antifungal agents has been observed in clinical isolates of Candida spp. and is a major clinical challenge. The rise and expansion of drug-resistant mutants during exposure to antifungal agents occurs through a process of adaptive evolution, with potentially complex population dynamics. Understanding the population dynamics during the emergence of drug resistance is important for determining the fundamental principles of how fungal pathogens evolve for resistance. While few detailed reports that focus on the population dynamics of C. albicans currently exist, several important features on the population structure and adaptive landscape can be elucidated from existing evolutionary studies in in vivo and in vitro systems.