Carbohydrate and energy-yielding metabolism in non-conventional yeasts1

Authors

  • Carmen-Lisset Flores,

    1. Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas Alberto Sols C.S.I.C.-UAM, Unidad de Bioquímica y Genética de Levaduras, 28029 Madrid, Spain
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    • 2

      On leave of absence from Departamento de Bioquímica, Facultad de Biología, Universidad de La Habana, Cuba.

  • Cristina Rodríguez,

    1. Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas Alberto Sols C.S.I.C.-UAM, Unidad de Bioquímica y Genética de Levaduras, 28029 Madrid, Spain
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  • Thomas Petit,

    1. Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas Alberto Sols C.S.I.C.-UAM, Unidad de Bioquímica y Genética de Levaduras, 28029 Madrid, Spain
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    • 3

      DSM Bakery Ingredient Division, 26000 MA Delft, The Netherlands.

  • Carlos Gancedo

    Corresponding author
    1. Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas Alberto Sols C.S.I.C.-UAM, Unidad de Bioquímica y Genética de Levaduras, 28029 Madrid, Spain
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  • 1

    This article is dedicated to the memory of Niko van Uden, an enthusiastic yeast researcher and a cultivated person.

*Corresponding author. Fax: +34 (91) 585 4587, E-mail address: cgancedo@iib.uam.es

Abstract

Sugars are excellent carbon sources for all yeasts. Since a vast amount of information is available on the components of the pathways of sugar utilization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae it has been tacitly assumed that other yeasts use sugars in the same way. However, although the pathways of sugar utilization follow the same theme in all yeasts, important biochemical and genetic variations on it exist. Basically, in most non-conventional yeasts, in contrast to S. cerevisiae, respiration in the presence of oxygen is prominent for the use of sugars. This review provides comparative information on the different steps of the fundamental pathways of sugar utilization in non-conventional yeasts: glycolysis, fermentation, tricarboxylic acid cycle, pentose phosphate pathway and respiration. We consider also gluconeogenesis and, briefly, catabolite repression. We have centered our attention in the genera Kluyveromyces, Candida, Pichia, Yarrowia and Schizosaccharomyces, although occasional reference to other genera is made. The review shows that basic knowledge is missing on many components of these pathways and also that studies on regulation of critical steps are scarce. Information on these points would be important to generate genetically engineered yeast strains for certain industrial uses.

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